# Chapter 2: The Scientific Method Flashcards

1
Q

The Scientific Method is grounded in what?

A

Systematic Observations

2
Q

What is the Theoretical Phase?

A

General - Theory - Hypothesis - Prediction - Specific

3
Q

What is the most important property of the theoretical phase?

A

That it is falsifiable

4
Q

What is the Empirical Phase?

A

Prediction - design study - collect data

5
Q

Definition of good operational?

A

(1) Does not rely on subjective judgment, (2) Easy for other researchers to replicate, (3) High reliability (consistency), (4) High validity (accuracy)

6
Q

What is a Case Study?

A

Extensive observation of one unusual person.

7
Q

What is Naturalistic Observation?

A

Observe people in public typically without them knowing.

8
Q

What are surveys and questionnaires?

A

Ask people directly but they can be unrealiable.

9
Q

What are correlational studies?

A

Measures two variables and studies the relationship between them.

10
Q

What are the 3 types of correlation?

A

(1) Positive correlation, both x and y move in the same direction. (2) Negative correlation, means x and y are going in opposite directions. (3) Zero correlation, x and y are unrelated.

11
Q

What are the two problems with correlation and causation?

A

Directionality problem and the third-variable problem.

12
Q

What is the directionality problem?

A

You don’t know which variable influences the other.

13
Q

What is the third - variable problem?

A

There is a third variable that influences both variables.

14
Q

What are experimental studies?

A

A study that investigates the cause and effect of one variable on another.

15
Q

What are independent and dependant variables?

A

The independent variable is the cause and the dependent variable is the effect.

16
Q

What is the Placebo Effect?

A

When patients report better results after taking a FAKE pill.

17
Q

What is the expectancy effect?

A

This is when the experimenter expects the outcome which can influence the experiment and the results.

18
Q

What is internal validity?

A

This reassures there is no variable that is messing up the experiment.

19
Q

How do researchers solve the validity problem?

A

(1) Calculate the likelihood that random assignment has failed, only accept results below 5%. (2) Make a larger group. (3). The importance of replication.

20
Q

What is external validity?

A

Your sample is similar and related to the general population.

21
Q

What is random selection?

A

Everybody in the population has the ability to be in the experiment.

22
Q

What is the Law of large numbers?

A

As the size of a sample increases the attributes of that sample will reflect the population better.