Flashcards in 14- congestion Deck (19):
can you give OTC cough and cold products to kids under two?
acute otitis media presentation
3-5 days after onset of upper respiratory symptoms.
otalgia (ear pain, tugging at ears).
fever, irritability, cough, anorexia, and, less commonly, vomiting and diarrhea.
begin with a viral URI, followed by superinfection of pathogenic bacteria (the same organisms as in OM).
A diagnosis of sinusitis should be considered when symptoms are persistent (>10 days), worsening, or severe (e.g. fever > 39 degrees).
what color is TM when child cries
otitis externa presentaiton
"swimmer's ear," is manifested by an edematous external auditory canal, and pain with traction on the ear lobe.
risk factors for otitis media
Bottle propping at bedtime
Drinking formula from a bottle rather than breastfeeding
Significant family history of AOM
Lower socioeconomic status
two most common pathogens to cause otitis media and third and 4th place
then strep pyogenes
first-line therapy for bilateral acute ottis media in kid 6 mo-2 yrs
use antibiotics if bilateral acute otitis media under 2 years old or if over 2 years old if...(rather than wait it out)
Toxic-appearing child, or
Persistent ear pain for 48 hours, or
Fever > 39 C within the past 48 hours
middle ear effusion TM exam
amber, non- or poorly mobile, opaque and retracted tympanic membrane
children with persistent effusion for >3 mo should have what test
Tympanostomy tube placement indications
children with otitis media with effusion persisting 4 months or longer and accompanied by hearing loss, documented language or other developmental delay, risk of developmental delay, or structural abnormality of the tympanic membrane or middle ear.
when is Amoxicillin/clavulanate used in acute otitis media
moderate to severe otalgia or high fever,
additional beta-lactamase coverage for Haemophilus influenzae and Moraxella catarrhalis,
when failure with amoxicillin is suspected.
sinuses inflamed in which years
maxillary and ethmoid (largest) in infancy.
sphenoid sinuses - third to fifth year of life,
frontal sinuses are rarely large enough until the sixth to tenth year of life.
frontal sinusitis presentation
pain over the frontal bone and perhaps facial swelling in an older child or adolescent.
bilateral otitis media with effusion
fluid in the middle ear space without signs and symptoms of acute inflammation (bulging or fullness of the tympanic membrane, fever and/or otalgia).
viruses known to be associated with AOM
help bacteria colonize and resist antibiotics
Potential Testing Performed by an Audiologist
Tympanogram- mobility of TM
Conventional audiometry- auditory threshold via earphones
Visual reinforcement audiometry- auditory threshold via speakers
Otoacoustic emissions- measure cochlear function in response to stimulus