14 - food and fiber ophtho Flashcards Preview

IP 11 Ophthalmology > 14 - food and fiber ophtho > Flashcards

Flashcards in 14 - food and fiber ophtho Deck (68):
1

The orbit in a ruminant is open or closed?

Closed

2

THe orbit in the pig is open or closed?

Open

3

What is the shape of a pig's pupils?

Round - similar to people

4

Granula iridica (corpora nigra) is present in what animals?

Ruminants and horses 

5

Which two animals do NOT have a tapetum?

Pigs, camelids

6

What ruminant has a kidney bean shaped optic disc?

Sheep

7

T/F: ruminants have a holangiotic fundus.

True

8

Congenital causes of micropthalmia in ruminants

Teratogenic exposure during development

Viral diseases: blue tongue in small ruminants and BVD in cattle

9

Cyclopia/Synopthalmos is a congenital disorder that occurs when the fetus is exposed to the plant ______ on day ____ in utero.

veratrum californicum; day 14

10

Two reasons for exophthalmos in ruminants

Neoplasia and Inflammatory (frontal sinusitis, foreign body migration, actinobacillus spp.)

11

Lymphosarcoma in the eye is most commonly presented bilaterally or unilaterally?

Bilaterally

12

Between cattle, sheep, goats and pigs, which species is entropion most common in?

Sheep

13

Entropion in sheep is an inherited abnormlaity that is usually _____ (bilateral/unilateral), and has an early onset within ___-___ days.

bilateral; 2-3 days

14

Ideal tx vs economically practical tx for entropion

Surgery is ideal

Scarification is more parctical 

15

Two methods to tx entropion via scarification:

Inject penicillin/tetracycline intot he eyelid - will cause scaring, and rotation of the eyelid outwards.

Or you can insert lidocaine into the lid and crush the tissue with hemostates to cause scaring.

16

T/F: Eyelid lacerations rarely need to be fixed surgically.

False - ALWAYS need to be repaired

17

Solar irritation (aka sunburn) to the eyelids is common in color ___ cattle.

Dilute

18

Photosensitization effects the eyelids in ruminants - it can be primary due to eating _____ and _____, or secondary due to _____ _____.

St. John's wort and perennial rygrass

secondary to liver disease

19

Two neoplasias on eyelids in cattle

SCC and papillomas

20

T/F: Papillomas are self-limiting and often do not need tx.

True

21

Two pathogens in sheep and goats that are etiologic causes for keratoconjuctivitis 

Chlamydia spp.

Mycoplasma spp.

22

C/S of keratoconjunctivitis in sheep and goats due to:

Chlamydia vs Mycoplasma

Both cause: epiphora/discharge; conjunctivitis/keratitis; polyarthritis; and outbreaks occur during lambing

Mycoplasma also causes mastitis and pleuropneumonia 

23

Is it common to test for causes of keratoconjunctivitis in sheep and goats? What do we do when we suspect it?

Uncommon to test - not economically practical

Instead, we just give them topical and/or systemic oxytetracycline empirically 

24

Infectious bovine rhinotracheitis (IBR) is caused by which virus?

Bovine herpes virus - BHV-1

25

In addition to respriatory disease and pyrexia, BHV-1 can also cause conjunctivitis in cattle. What are common C/S of conjunctivitis caused by this virus?

Plaques - filled with lymphocytes

Conjunctival ulcers

Diphtheritic membrane

26

Malignant catarrhal fever (MCF) causes _____ vasculitis in cattle.

lymphocytic vasculitis 

27

MCF causes uveitis in cattle, why does uveitis from from MCF?

B/c MCF causes a lymphocytic vasculitis  - leading uveitis and corneal edema as a result of uveitis

28

C/S of MCF

Systemic illness and diffuse, corneal edema with uveitis

29

Why does Infectious bovine keratoconjunctivitis (pink eye) cause a large economic impact in cattle?

Decreased weight gain

Reduced milk production

Costs of tx

Ocular disfigurement - can lead to blindness, and can lead to head being condemned in slaughter

30

What contributing pathogens predipose to infectious bovine keratoconjunctivitis (IBK)?

Infectious bovine rhinotracheitis (IBR)

Mycoplasma

Branhamella

Listeria

31

what is the #1 suspect of IBK? What are two other suspects?

#1 = Moraxella bovis

Others: Moraxella ovis and Moraxella bovoculi

32

Moraxella bovis is a _____ (shape), gram ____ baceteria. Over ___ serogroups have ____ that assist with attachment to epithelium, causing those to pathogenic. Some even contain _____ enzyme that assists in the penetration through the epithelium.

coccobacillus

negative

7

pili

beta-hemolysin

33

Moraxella ovis and Moraxella bovoculi are also thought to be associated with IBK, but they are also part of the normal _____ of the eye.

flora

34

IBK is most common in what season?

 Summer

35

How is IBK transmitted?

Nasal and ocular discharge - direct contact

Fly vectors

Fomites

36

Breed and other susceptibilties to IBK?

Bos taurus >> bos indicus

Herefords

Young animals >> older animals

UV light exposre 

37

Tx of IBK

Use labeled antimicrobials:

topicals include oxytetracycline and vetericyn

Sysetmics include oxytetracycline and tulathromycin

Systemics are more practical than topicals.

You can also use corticosteroids, and ancillary therapy like eyepatch.

38

Vaccine to prevent IBK includes which two Moraxella pathogens?

M. bovis and M. bovoculi, but NOT M. ovis.

39

Why do vaccines against IBK prevnetion have limited efficacy?

Due to strain variability

40

How else can you prevent IBK besides vaccines?

Mow pastures - minimzie dust/pollen and reudce occular trauma from long grasses

Control vectors (flys)

Separate infected and susceptible animals

Provide shade and ample space.

41

Out of cattle, sheep, goats and pigs, neoplasia affects which species MC?

Cattle

42

C/S of squamous cell carcinoma

Often starts as a small plaque on the bulbar conjunctiva/cornea at limbus

Turns into papilloma --> carcinoma producing neoplasti cells --> invades basement membrane and becomes an invasive carcinoma 

43

Diagnosis of SCC

Biopsy as definitive dx

Often clinical appearance is enough to know it is a SCC before biopsy

44

Tx of SCC

Sx + other modality

Exenteration = removal of the globe and orbital contents (= extirpate in food animal world)

45

Two types of regional anesthesia done, which one is more common?

Peterson block - inject one large dose of lidocaine - can cause death if you inject direclty into optic nerve, not done often anymore.

Four point block - more common, smaller volumes of lidocaine given at four different points

46

Two congenital reasons for cataracts in ruminants

Autosomal recessive in jersey, hereford, and holstein breeds.

In utero exposure to BVD

47

Acquired reasons for cataracts in cattle/ruminants

Trauma, uveitis, systemic disease

48

Acquired reasons for cataracts in swine

Hygromycin B

49

Differential list for cortical blindness

  • Polioencephalomalacia
  • Lead poisoning
  • Ketosis - small ruminants
  • Locoweed
  • Lightning strikes
  • Infecitous diseases (scrapie, listeria, rabies)

50

Camelids have an open or closed orbit?

Closed

51

Camelid orbits open into the ___ cavity rostral to the orbit.

nasal

52

Camelids have an ____ pupil.

Oval

53

Camelids have ribbon-like _____ ____, aka _____.

Granula iridica (corpora nigra)

54

T/F: Camelids have meibomian glands on their eyelids.

False - NO meibomian glands present

55

T/F: Camelids have sebaceous glands on the lacrimal caruncle.

True.

56

T/F: Camelids have a holangiatic fundus with no tapetum.

True

57

The normal nasolacrimal system in camelids has three puncta - where are there locations:

2 in lacrimal - upper and lower

one in nasal - just proximal to vestibule

58

What is dacryocystitis?

Inflammation of the lacrimal gland, secondary to obstruction of the nasolacrimal duct at the level of the lacrimal sac

59

Congenital malformations of the nasolacrmial system are common in camelids - which may include punctal or nasolacrimal duct atresia. How do we confirm and tx?

Confirm with dacryocystorhinogrpahy - contrast study to tell us where occlusion is

Tx - surigcal if easy to reach - to create puncta, if not easy to reach - not economically worth while to tx surgically 

60

T/F: Neoplasias of the eye are very common in camelids.

False - rare

61

T/F: Cataracts are very common in camelids.

True

62

We think cataracts in camelids are inherited as an autosomal recessive trait in _____ (europe)

Vicunas

63

Cataracts can also be secondary to ____ or potentially associated with _____ virus.

uveitis; BVD virus

64

Cataract surgery in camelids include:

Phacoemulsification

Irrigating solutions fortified with glutathione

Medial corneal incision placement 

65

Do camelids have a tapetum?

No

66

What agents can cuase posterior uveitis in camelids?

EHV-1 (contact with equine)

Aspergillosis

Toxoplasmosis

67

Ontop of causing posterior uveitis, EHV-1 and asperigillosis also have ____ signs associated with disease.

neurologic

68

EHV-1 in camelids will cause posterior uvetiis, with neurologic signs, but also ___ neuritis.

optic