1.4 Health effects of chemicals used in the workplace Flashcards Preview

B01. Principles of toxicology and epidemiology > 1.4 Health effects of chemicals used in the workplace > Flashcards

Flashcards in 1.4 Health effects of chemicals used in the workplace Deck (27)
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1

The safety data sheet should be dated and contain the following headings: 19

 Identification of the substance/mixture and of the company/undertaking
 Hazards identification
 Composition/information on ingredients
 First-aid measures
 Fire-fighting measures
 Accidental release measures
 Handling and storage
 Exposure controls/personal protection
 Physical and chemical properties
 Stability and reactivity
 Toxicological information
 Ecological information
 Disposal considerations
 Transport information
 Regulatory information
 Other information.

2

Very Toxic

Substances and preparations which, at very low levels, may cause death, acute or chronic damage to health when inhaled, swallowed or absorbed via the skin.

3

Toxic

Substances and preparations which, at low levels, may cause death, acute or chronic damage to health when inhaled, swallowed or absorbed via the skin.

4

Harmful

Substances and preparations which may cause death, acute or chronic damage to health when inhaled, swallowed or absorbed via the skin.

5

Corrosive

Substances and preparations which may, on contact with living tissues, destroy them.

6

Irritant

Substances and preparations which, through immediate and prolonged or repeated contact with the skin or mucous membrane, may cause inflammation.

7

Sensitising

Substances and preparations which, if they are inhaled or if they penetrate the skin, are capable of eliciting a reaction by hypersensitisation such that on further exposure to the substance or preparation, characteristic adverse
effects are produced.

8

Carcinogenic

Substances and preparations which, if they are inhaled or ingested or if they penetrate the skin, may induce cancer or increase its incidence.

9

Carcinogens are placed into one of three categories:
Category 1

Proven human carcinogens, for example: benzene, arsenic, chromium VI, asbestos

10

Carcinogens are placed into one of three categories:
Category 2

Suspected carcinogens, for example: cadmium compounds, beryllium compounds, sodium dichromate

11

Carcinogens are placed into one of three categories:
Category 3

Animal studies indicate a link, but there is no proven human link

12

Mutagenic

Substances and preparations which, if they are inhaled or ingested or if they penetrate the skin, may induce heritable genetic defects or increase their incidence.

13

Toxic for reproduction

Substances and preparations which, if they are inhaled or ingested or if they penetrate the skin, may produce or increase the incidence of non-heritable adverse effects in the progeny and/or of male or female reproductive functions or capacity.

14

Asbestos is a naturally occurring mineral (fibrous silicate) which, because of its various useful properties (thermal insulation, fire resistance, electrical insulation and high tensile strength), has been in large scale use for about 150 years.

Three main types have been used in Great Britain:

 Crocidolite (blue)

 Amosite (brown)

 Chrysotile (white).

15

Asbestos was extensively used as a building material in the UK from the 1950’s
through to the mid1980’s.
The most common uses of asbestos in buildings were: 5

 Loose packing between floors and in partition walls.

 Sprayed (‘limpet’) fire insulation on structural beams and girders.

 Lagging on pipe-work, boilers, calorifiers, heat exchangers etc.

 Asbestos insulation board (AIB) in ceiling tiles, partition walls, soffits, service duct covers, fire breaks, heater cupboards, door panels, lift shaft linings, fire surrounds.

 Asbestos cement (AC) in roof sheeting, wall cladding, walls and ceilings, bath panels, boiler and incinerator flues, fire surrounds, gutters, rainwater pipes and water tanks.

16

Chronic health effects of asbestos 4

 Diffuse pleural thickening (not fatal)

 Asbestosis (not always fatal, but very debilitating)

 Mesothelioma (always fatal)

 Lung cancer (almost always fatal).

17

Acute health effects of chromium: 3

 Irritation and inflammation of the nose and upper respiratory tract

 Burns to the skin possibly leading to ulcers

 Eye damage from splashes.

18

Chronic health effects of chromium: 5

 Damage to the nose, including ulcers and holes in the flap of tissue separating the nostrils

 Irritation of the lungs

 Kidney damage

 Allergic reactions in the skin and respiratory tract

 Risk of cancer of the lung and nose from certain processes.

19

Acute health effects isocyanates 6

 Recurring blocked or runny nose
 Recurring sore or watering eyes
 Chest tightness, often occurring outside working hours
 Persistent cough
 Wheezing
 Breathlessness.

20

Chronic health effects isocyanates

Exposure to isocyanates may lead to permanent and severe occupational asthma.
There is no cure. Breathing in the smallest amount of isocyanate could then trigger
an attack. Almost certainly, the sufferer would have to give up their current job. 


21

Chronic health effects (inorganic lead)

Continued uncontrolled exposure could cause more serious symptoms such as: 4

 Kidney damage
 Nerve and brain damage
 Infertility
 Damage to an unborn baby, especially in the early weeks before a pregnancy
becomes known.

22

If employees could be exposed to lead, lead compounds, dust, fume or vapour at
work employers must assess the risks to health to decide whether or not exposure
is ‘significant’ 3

 Where any employee is or is liable to be exposed to a concentration of lead in the atmosphere exceeding half the occupational exposure limit for lead.

 Where there is a substantial risk of any employee ingesting lead.

 If there is a risk of an employee’s skin coming into contact with lead alkyls, or any other substance containing lead in a form which can also be absorbed through the skin.

23

Action levels and Suspension levels for lead

General employee
Young person under 18
Woman of child bearing age

50 μg/100ml 60 μg/100ml
40 μg/100ml 50 μg/100ml
25 μg/100ml 30 μg/100ml

24

Control measures for RCS: 5

 Elimination by substituting non silicate materials, for example: using non-silica grits for blasting.

 Eliminating or reducing dust levels by designing out the need for dust generating activities, for example: cutting or drilling concrete.

 Controlling exposure to silica dust by dust suppression techniques (wet working) and local exhaust ventilated tools to remove the dust at source.

 Respiratory protective equipment requires careful selection. For the dustiest processes, positive pressure or airline breathing apparatus will probably be necessary.

 Good hygiene controls – washing facilities and laundry arrangements.

25

Routes of entry Sodium hydroxide 3

 Breathing in mists or droplets.
 Breathing in vapours due to exothermic reactions which ‘boil’ solutions.
 Contact with skin and eyes.

26

Chronic health effects sulphuric acid 3

 Inflammation (pulmonary oedema) of the lungs.
 Dental decay.
 Sulphuric acid mists are carcinogenic to humans. (Note: Sulphuric acid or its solutions are not considered to be carcinogenic).

27

Control measures for wood dust 7

 Changing a process or method of work to reduce the generation of dust to a minimum.

 Providing dust control equipment, for example: local exhaust ventilation at woodworking machines.

 Maintaining LEV plant and equipment in efficient working order.

 Respiratory protective equipment where necessary.

 Other PPE, such as eye protection, overalls and gloves, where necessary.

 Arrangements for laundering dusty work clothes.

 Good washing facilities with hot and cold water, soap and towels.