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1
Q

variolation

A

inoculation of dried pus from smallpox pustules onto the arm of a healthy individual

2
Q

cardinal rule of workable vaccine

A

must contain antigen but not cause disease

3
Q

first vaccine: when and who

A

edward jenner 1796

4
Q

passived immunization

A

given antibodies

5
Q

active immunization

A

given antigens

6
Q

Immune serum globulin (ISG) aka gamma globulin

A

immunoglobulin extracted from pooled blood of at least 1,000 human donors-concentrates the antibodies and removes pathogens-Prevention of Hep A and measles-Replaces antibodies in immunodeficient pateints-injected intramuscularly-protection for 2-3 months

7
Q

specific immune globulin (SIG)

A

immunoglobulin derived from more defined group of donors-obtain serum from patients who are convalescing and in a hyperimmune state-Used against pertussis, rabies, tetanus, chickenpox, and Hep B-preferred to ISG b/c higher titer counts

8
Q

can antiseri and antitoxins from animal origin be used?

A

YesSera from horses is used against diptheria, botulism, and spider and snake bites-may cause serum sickness or anaphylaxis though

9
Q

vaccination

A

exposing to antigenic, but not pathogenic materia-cause primary and anamnestic response for long term immunity

10
Q

most vaccine stimulants contain:

A

1)killed whole cells or inactivated viruses2)live attenuated cells or viruses3)antigenic components of cells or virusesand/or4)genetically engineered microbes or microbial antigens

11
Q

Killed or inactivated viruses

A

treatment with formalin, radiation, heat, or some other agent that does not destroy antigenicity

12
Q

Vaccines of killed microbes require what

A

higher doses and more boosters because they do not multiply

13
Q

which vaccines contain inactivated viruses

A

salk polio and influenza vaccine

14
Q

Attenuation

A

process that substantially lessens the virulence of microbes-typically by modifying growth conditions or manipulating microbial genes -methods: long term cultivation, selection of cold mutants, passage of microbe through unnatural hosts and removal of virulence genes

15
Q

Vaccines that have attenuated microbes

A

BCG for TB, measles, mumps, polio, and rubella

16
Q

benefits of attenuated vaccines

A

1)microbes can multiply and cause infection but not disease2)long-lasting protection3)few doses and boosters

17
Q

disadvantages of attenuated vaccines

A

1)require special storage2)transmitted to others3)mutate back to virulent strain

18
Q

Acellular or subcellular vaccines

A

Used if exact antigenic determinants of BACTERIA that stimulate immunity are known.

19
Q

subunit vaccines

A

Used if exact antigenic determinants of VIRUSES that stimulate immunity are known.

20
Q

subunit/subcellular vaccines synthesis

A

1)taken from cultures of microbes2)produced by rDNA tech.3)synth chemically

21
Q

Examples of component antigens

A

capsules of pneumococcus and meningococcus-protein surface antigen of anthrax and Hep B

22
Q

Toxoid

A

special type of vaccine that consists of purified bacterial exotoxin that has been chemically denatured-provide protection against toxinoses like diptheria and tetanus

23
Q

recombinant vaccines

A

made by isolating a gene for antigenicity from pathogen and splicing into a plasmid then recombining in a yeast

24
Q

novel approaches for vaccines are especially useful against:

A

obligate parasites that are difficult or expensive to cultureSyphilis spirochete or malaria

25
Q

Cloning host stimulated to synth and secrete certain antigens used for what

A

Hep B and lyme disease

26
Q

Trojan Horse Vaccine

A

Genetic material from infectious agent inserted into live carrier microbe that will multiply and express the foregin genes.-Vaccinia and adenoviruses

27
Q

Vaccinia

A

Uses trojan horse method and used for AIDS, herpes simplex 2, leprosy and TB

28
Q

DNA vaccines

A

Most promising new form of immunization-microbial DNA is inserted in plasmid vector then given to humans who take up some form of the plasmids and express the microbial DNA in form of proteins-causes immune response because proteins are foreign

29
Q

anti-idiotype vaccine

A

newer vaccine method that uses the principle that the idiotype or variable region where antigen binds can be antigenic to another recepietn and cause that recipeients immune system to produce antibodies specific for variable region on antibody A-used for hep B and trypanosoma

30
Q

benefits of oral vaccine

A

1)Stimulate protection (IgA) on the mucous membrane 2)easy to give3)readily accepted/tolerated

31
Q

Adjuvant

A

any compound that enhances immunogenicity and prolongs antigen retention at injection site-used in oral vaccines to hold in the tissues so it is released gradually-alum, Freund’s adjuvant, and beeswax

32
Q

panencephalitis

A

rare reaction from measles vaccine

33
Q

back-mutation to virulen strain

A

from polio vaccine

34
Q

herd immunity

A

concept that if one is immune they are not carriers, reducing the occurrence of the microbe and nearly wiping out the disease

35
Q

serological testing

A

characterizing antibodies to determine history of patient’s contact with microbe

36
Q

serology

A

branch of immunology that deals with in vitro testing of serum-modern day tech. use more than just serum

37
Q

specificity

A

is the property of a test to focus upon only a certain antibody or antigen

38
Q

sensitivity

A

test can detect even small amounts of antibodies

39
Q

titer

A

quantity of antibodies in serum-determined by serial dilutions

40
Q

Agglutination vs precipitation

A

Agglutination: antigens are whole cells or bacteria with determinant groupsPrecipitation: antigen is soluble moleculeBoth: Ag and Ab bind to create a large insoluble aggregate

41
Q

Agglutination testing

A

antisera is added to test for agglutination-Widal test, RPR, Wiel-Felix, latex agglutiation, viral hemaglutination

42
Q

Widal test

A

tube agglutination test for salmonelloses and undulant fever

43
Q

Rapid Plasma Reagin test

A

agglutination test for antibodies to syphilis

44
Q

cold agglutinin test

A

agglutination test for antibodies the react at lower temps for mycoplasma pneumonia

45
Q

Weil-felix reaction

A

agglutination test for rickettsial infections

46
Q

latex agglutination test

A

inert latex beads that have antigen attached-homemade tests available for pregnancy tests, Candida yeasts, bacteria, and rheumatoid arthritis

47
Q

viral hemagglutination test

A

agglutinogens, RBC that react with viral antigens-interpreted based upon competition b/w RBC not antibodies-if serum does not contain antibodies specific to the virus, virus reacts with RBC and agglutinates them-agglutination=no antibodies-diagnosis of MMR, mononucleosis, and influenza

48
Q

seropositive

A

when a positive reaction occurs with a patient’s serum-does not necessarily indicate diseased state

49
Q

false positives

A

occur when antibodies in the serum cross-react with test reagents

50
Q

VDRL

A

Veneral disease research lab that uses precipitiation rxns to test for syphilis (false positives may arise)

51
Q

What media are precipitation rxns carried out in

A

agar b/c liquid easily disrupts the precip.

52
Q

double diffusion (Ouchterlony) method

A

involves diffusion of antigens and antibodies after punching small wells into an agar medium and filling them with Ab and Ag-Band b/w two wells shows reactions between Ab and Ag

53
Q

Immunoelectrophoresis

A

serum sample is electrophoresed to separate the serum proteins -Ab are placed in a trough parallel to direction of migration, forming rxn arcs-used for diagnosis of disorders in production of antibodies

54
Q

counterimmunoelectrophoresis

A

uses electrical current to speed up migration of antibody and antigen-newer tech for determining bac. and vir. antigens in blood

55
Q

Western blot

A

electrophoretic separation of proteins then an immunoassy to detect the proteins-very specific and sensitive way to identify particular protein (Ab or Ag)1)material electrophoresed in a gel to separate out particular bands2)gel transferred to special blotter that binds reactants in place. blot is tagged with antibodies or antigens with radioactive, fluorescent, or luminescent labels

56
Q

lysin or cytolysin

A

antibody that fixes complement to complete lysis of its antigenic target cell

57
Q

complement fixaion tests or CF

A

based on lysin-mediated hemolysisfour components:1)antibody2)antigen3)complement4)sensitized sheep RBCsteps:Stage 1-1)antigen reacts with antibody w/o complement-if specific to one another they form complexes2)purified complement from guinea pigs added -if complexes formed in step one they fix the complementStage 2-3)sheep RBC are mixed with lysins and the tube from stage 1 is added-if hemolysis does not occur the unknown antigen or antibody is present and positive test

58
Q

ASO antistreptolysin O titer test

A

measures the levels of antibody against streptolysin toxin1)serum sample exposed to streptococci and incubated with RBC-lack of hemolysis indicates positive antibody/antigen test*important for scarlet fever, rheumatic fever, etc.

59
Q

start on

A

page 490 or 519 according to bottom