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Flashcards in 1.77TScience and tech Deck (76)
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Biotechnology.-CRISPR /Cas9

 Crispr/Cas9 is related to genome editing. (Genome: Complete DNA sequence)
 CRISPR stands for clustered regularly interspaced short palindromic repeats
 In simple terms, a DNA sequence is cut at a particular spot and then with help of a guide RNA (gRNA) that place
is re-made with desired base pairing. This way genes can be altered.
 It allows scientists to selectively edit genome parts and replace them with new DNA stretches
 Cas9 is the enzyme which acts as a "molecular scissors" and helps in cutting the DNA sequence.
 CRISPR is a collection of DNA sequences that direct Cas9 where to cut and paste


DMH-11 (GM Mustard)

It is a Genetically Modified Mustard
 Developed by the Centre for Genetic Manipulation of Crop Plants of Delhi University
 If it gets the green light from the environment ministry’s GEAC, it will be the first GM food crop to be
commercially cultivated in India
 It was a government sponsored project


Embryo Transfer Technology (ETT)

 ETT is one of the most important reproductive biotechnologies where male and female genetic material can be
utilized for faster improvement of livestock.
 It has revolutionized breeding strategies in Bovines as tool to optimize genetic improvement in cattle.
 Using it, embryos of higher genetic merit indigenous bovines such as Sahiwal, Gir, Red Sindhi, Ongole, Deoni
and Vechur are being transferred in to surrogate cows.
 Government is taking this technology to doorstep of farmers for rapid propogation of high genetic merit
indigenous cattle.
 Benefits of using ETT:
o Farmer can get 5-6 fold increase in number of offsprings.
o So born calves will be of high genetic merit
o Offsprings born will be free from diseases.


Mitochondrial Replacement Therapy

 It is also called Mitochondrial Gene Therapy
 MRT or Mitochondrial donation is a medical technique in which defective mitochondria carried by a woman is
replaced with the healthy mitochondria of a donor.
 Through invitro fertilization technique (IVF), the egg is then fertilised with the partner’s sperm. Thus the
embryo remains free from any such defects.
 The two most common techniques in mitochondrial donation are maternal spindle transfer and pronuclear
 Thus this medical technique prevents the transmission of mitochondrial (genetic) disease from one generation
to the next.
 MRT proposes to give parents chance of having a child that is over 99% genetically matched to them and most
importantly free of the mitochondrial disease
 Benefits:
o It will prevent transmission of mitochondrial (genetic) disease from one generation to the next.
o It will give parents chance of having a child that is over 99% genetically matched to them and most
importantly free of the mitochondrial disease.
o It has no impact on personality or looks of the offspring from third DNA set, as surrogate mitochondrial
DNA is separate from core DNA in cells.
 Why in news?
o First three parent child was born via this technique in Mexico
o UK became first country in world to legalise MGT



 It is a vaccine used to protect against rotavirus infections.
 These viruses are the leading cause of severe diarrhea among young children
 Vaccine reduces risk of death due to diarrhea
 India based Bharat Biotech produces Rotavac
 It was developed under the joint collaboration between India and United States in area of medical research
 It was developed under public-private partnership (PPP) model that involved Ministry of Science and
Technology, institutions of the US Government and NGOs in India supported by Bill and Melinda Gates
 Why in news?
Rotavac became first Indigenously developed vaccine from India to be pre-qualified by World Health
Organisation (WHO).
 It is a most common causative agent of moderate-to-severe diarrhoea (MSD) among infants below 11 months
age group in India.
 It spreads from person to person due to bacterial and parasiting agents that are primarily transmitted through
contaminated food or water.
 It is responsible for estimated 36% of hospitalisations for childhood diarrhoea around world and for estimated
200,000 deaths in low- and middle-income countries.
 In India, diarrhoea caused by rotavirus, kills nearly 80 thousand children under age of 5 years and up to 10 lakh
hospitalizations each year.


Advanced Towed Artillery Gun System (ATAGS)

 It is fully indigenously built towed artillery gun system
 Developed by DRDO and private sector consortium
 It has a longer firing range of 40 Kms with accuracy and precision and provides greater fire power.
 It is also has night firing capability in direct fire mode
 It has several significant features such as an all-electric drive, quick deploy ability, high mobility, auxiliary power
mode, advanced communication system, and automated command and control system.


Agni I

 Intermediate range
 Nuclear capable
 Surface-to-surface
 Ballistic
 It is first missile of the Agni series launched in 1983.
 Developed by DRDO + DRDL (Defence Research Development Laboratory) + BDL (Bharat Dynamics Limited,
 It weighs 12 tonnes and is 15-metre-long.
 It is designed to carry a payload of more than one tonne.
 It is single stage missile powered by solid propellants.
 It can hit a target 700 km away.
 Its strike range can be extended by reducing the payload.
 It can be fired from road and rail mobile launchers.
 It is equipped with sophisticated navigation system which ensures it reaches the target with a high degree of
accuracy and precision.
 The missile already has been inducted into armed forces.
 Since its induction it has proved its excellent performance in terms of range, accuracy and lethality.
 It is also claimed to be a part of the India’s minimum credible deterrence under No first to use policy



 Agni-II is two-stage nuclear capable surface-to-surface missile developed indigenously by DRDO.
 It is 21-metre long and weighs 17 tonnes.
 It has strike range of 2000 kilometres, which can also be increased to 3000km by reducing the payload.
 It is propelled by the solid rocket propellant system.
 It can carry a nuclear payload of 1 thousand kilograms.
 It is one of the sophisticated weapons that can act as a deterrent against nuclear-armed neighbours.
 It is equipped with advanced high accuracy navigation system.
 It is guided by a novel scheme of state of the art command and control system.
 It can be fired from both rail and road mobile launchers and it takes only 15 minutes for the missile to be readied
for firing.


Agni V

 It is an intercontinental ballistic missile
 It is three-stage solid propellant nuclear-capable missile
 It is a surface-to-surface missile
 Developed by DRDO
 Range : 5500-5800km
 Engine : 3 stage solid fuel
 Capable of carrying nuclear warheads of over one tonne
 It carries Multiple Independently Targetable Re-entry Vehicles (MIRV) payloads. A single MIRV equipped
missile that can deliver multiple warheads at different targets
 It is also a fire and forget missile, which once fired cannot be stopped, except by interceptor missile which only
US, Russia and Israel have.


Akash Missile

Akash Missile System
 Indigenously developed by Defence Research and Development Organisation (DRDO) under the Integrated
Guided-Missile Development Programme (IGMDP).
 Mid-range surface-to-air anti-aircraft missile
 Supersonic speeds ranging from Mach 2.8 to 3.5
 Nuclear capable
 It is multi target, multi directional, all weather air-defence system consisting of surveillance and tracking radars.
 Akash is powered by Ramjet-rocket propulsion system


Astra Missile

 It is a beyond-visual-range air-to-air missile (BVRAAM)
 Astra is designed to be capable of engaging targets at varying range and altitudes allowing for engagement of
both short-range targets (up to 20 km) and long-range targets (up to 80 km) using alternative propulsion
 It is indigenously developed by DRDO.
 It is a single stage solid fuelled missile.


Barak Missile

 Barak is a Hebrew word for lightening
 It is an Indian-Isreli Long Range surface-to-air missile
 It is nuclear capable ballistic missile
 It is designed to defend against any type of airborne threat including aircraft, helicopters, anti-ship missiles,
and UAVs as well as cruise missiles and combat jets out to a maximum range of 70 km
 Both maritime and land-based versions of the system exist
 Jointly developed by Israel Aerospace Industries (IAI) and DRDO


Bhabha Kavach

 BARC has developed Bhabha Kavach, a next-generation bulletproof jacket that is cheaper, lightweight.
 Bhabha Kavach is made of boron carbide and carbon nanotube polymer composite and weighs just 6.6
 The materials used in it reduce weight by nearly 50% as compared to presently used heavy steel-armoured
jackets that weigh between 10kg to 17kg.
 It has passed over 30 tests carried out by certified agencies.
 These materials have been indigenously developed at BARC and are spin-off from nuclear technology
 Apart from being lighter, sturdier and more reliable, Bhabha Kavach is also cost effective.
 It will cost Rs 60,000-70,000 as compared to imported bulletproof jackets costing around Rs 1.5 lakh.
 Bhabha Kavach is able to withstand eight 7.62mm bullets fired from AK-47 rifle from distance of 5-10 metres. It
can even withstand 5.56mm bullet of Indian Small Arms System (INSAS).



 Supersonic cruise missile
 Designed and developed by BrahMos Aerospace, a joint venture of India and Russia
 It has derived its name from the names of two rivers, India’s Brahmaputra River and Russia’s Moskva River.
 It operates on fire and forget principal
 Capable of being launched from land, sea, sub-sea and air against sea and land targets
 Carrying capacity : 300 Kg
 Speed : Mach 3 (that is, three times the speed of sound)
 Max Range : 290 Km
 It is two-stage missile, the first one being solid and the second one ramjet liquid propellant.
 BrahMos missile already has been inducted into the Indian Army and Navy
New Developments
 India and Russia have agreed to double the range from 290 to 600 kms
 Earlier, India was denied access to the missile technology with range over 300 km as it was not member state of
the Missile Technology Control Regime (MTCR). But India’s recent accession to MTCR, allowed Russia to
provide the critical systems and technology to extend the range of the missile beyond 300km.
 It is successfully test fired from Sukhoi-30MKI fighter jets. It makes IAF first air force in world to have
successfully fire air-launched 2.8 Mach surface attack missile of this category.


C-17 Globemaster

 It is US Made transport aircraft
 Manufactured by Boeing
 The aircraft is capable of strategic delivery of personnel and/or equipment to operating locations.
 It can carry out tactical airlift and airdrop missions as well as transport litters and ambulatory patients.


Dhanush ATAGS

 It is indigenous Advanced Towed Artillery Gun System (ATAGS)
 It is based on the 1980s’ Bofors FH-77B/39 Calibre artillery gun design.
 Its indigenous development is aided by the transfer of technology (ToT) clause signed with the Swedish
 It is developed by DRDO in collaboration with private companies
 It boasts a range of 45 km with accuracy and precision and provides greater fire power, depending on the type of
ammunition used.
 It also has night firing capability in direct fire mode.
 It has several significant features such as an all-electric drive, quick deploy ability, high mobility, auxiliary power
mode, advanced communication system, and automated command and control system.


Dhanush Missile

 Dhanush missile is also known as Prithvi-III.
 It is naval variant of indigenously-developed Prithvi-II missile.
 Its design features customisations to Prithvi platform to make it suitable for launch from ship.
 It is short-range ballistic missile capable of carrying nuclear as well as conventional warheads.
 It has length of 8.53 meters and 0.9 metre wide is capable of carrying a payload of 500 kg and is capable of
hitting both land and sea-based targets.
 It can be used for both ship-to-ship and ship-to-surface strikes.
 It has declared strike range of 350 km


Kalvari Class Submarines

 It is a class of submarines based on Scorpene class submarines
 It is a class of diesel-electric attack submarine
 They are being built under technology transfer agreement with France
 They are being built under P75 (Project 75)
 The project was necessitated by the dwindling number of submarines in the Indian Navy.
 They use guided weapons such as tube-launched anti-ship missiles and torpedoes on enemy submarines from
the surface or underwater.
 Besides warfare, they can perform varied functions will include intelligence gathering, mine laying and area
surveillance etc.
 2 Scorpene class submarines already inducted are:
o INS Kalvari
o INS Khanderi


Laser Weapons System (LaWS)

 Laser Weapons System (LaWS) are being developed and tested by USA
 LaWS operates within an invisible part of the electromagnetic spectrum.
 It strikes are extremely accurate, silent and invisible.
 It is primarily intended to take on drones, aircraft, and small vessels that could be used in an attack.
 The system has special materials that release photons at the speed of light.
 It silently hits the target, burning it to a temperature of thousands of degrees.
 It can even target a single component of an enemy target and disable or destroy it as necessary.
 Each strike of the system travels 50,000 times the speed of an incoming ICBM (Intercontinental Ballistic
 It is a very versatile weapon that can be used against a variety of targets in air or surface targets or ground-based
 Its precise nature can also limit collateral damage in wartime.
 Its cost per use is approximately $1 per shot.
 The system requires electrical power and a three-man team.
 US is also developing second generation LaWS system which is believed to be intended to take on faster targets
such as incoming missiles.


M777 Guns

 India is acquiring these artillery guns from USA
 It will increase army's capabilities in High Altitudes
 It will be deployed in Northern and Eastern Sectors
 The modular design of the guns would come handy in towing the guns along the narrow and treacherous
mountain roads that is found in India’s borders with both Pakistan and China.
 It will be especially used by the army’s new mountain strike corps which is being raised to counter China in the
Northeast. The new corps is expected to be fully operational by 2025.
 The guns can also be airlifted by using heavy-lift helicopters like the Chinook. India has signed an agreement to
acquire Chinook from the US.
 The C130J Super Hercules, which are used for strategic airlift by India is also capable of airlifting M777 guns.



 MR-SAM stands for medium range surface-to-air missile
 Jointly developed by India and Israel
 Supersonic missile system
 The missile consists of Multi-Functional Surveillance and Threat Alert Radar (MF-STAR) system for detection,
tracking and guidance
 The MR-SAM has strike ranges from 50 to 70 km
 MRSAM is a land-based variant of the long-range surface-to-air missile (LRSAM) or Barak-8 naval air
defence system, which is designed to operate from naval vessels.
 The missile is designed to defend any type of airborne threat including aircraft and helicopters. It can intercept
supersonic aircraft and even missiles
 The system will be based on the older Barak system of Israel, which is in use in India. It will be manufactured in
India and will have an 80% indigenous content.
 The MRSAM is operational with the Indian Air Force, Indian Navy and Israel Defense Forces. Its deployment in
Indian Army will help in plugging the existing holes in India’s air defence coverage.
 Why in news? New deal is signed with Israel to provide Indian Army with Barak-8 advanced MRSAM systems.


Muntra - Unmanned Tank

 It is an unmanned remotely operated tank.
 Developed by DRDO.
 It has been launched in three variants:
o Muntra-S : For surveillance
o Muntra-M : For mine detection.
o Muntra-N : For reconnaissance in areas with nuclear and biological threats. It is also likely to be used in
Naxal-hit areas.
 The Muntra variants have surveillance radar, an integrated camera along with laser range finder which can be
used to spy on ground target 15km away – heavy vehicles or crawling men.


Nag missile

 It is a "Fire and Forget" anti-tank missile
 It is a guided missile
 Developed by DRDO under Integrated Guided Missile Development Program.
 The NAG ATGM has strike range of over 2.5km with fire and forget capabilities.
 It has top attack capabilities that can effectively engage and destroy all known enemy tanks during day and
 The missile incorporates an advanced passive homing guidance system and possesses high single-shot kill
probability. It is designed to destroy modern main battle tanks and other heavily armoured targets.
 Nag can be launched from land and air-based platforms.
 It is in service since 2015.
 It is developed under Indian Ministry of Defence’s integrated guided missile development programme (IGMDP),
which also involved the development of four other missiles that are Agni, Akash, Trishul and Prithvi


Nirbhay missile

 It is a long range missile
 It is a surface-to-surface missile
 It takes off vertically like a missile and cruise horizontally like an aircraft.
 Sub-sonic cruise missile
 Developed by DRDO
 Can carry conventional as well as nuclear war-head
 It can operate in all type of weathers
 Range : 1000km
 It is a terrain hugging missile which keeps on encircling the area of its target for several minutes and then
hits bull’s eye’ on an opportune time. It is difficult to detect by enemy’s radars


Prithvi Advanced Air Defence (AAD)

 It is indigenously developed supersonic interceptor missile
 It is capable of destroying any incoming ballistic missile in low altitude.
 The Prithvi interceptor is a 7.5-meter long single stage solid rocket propelled guided missile.
 It is equipped with a navigation system, a hi-tech computer and electro-mechanical activator.
 It can destroy the incoming hostile ballistic missile in endo-atmospheric region (less than 30 km
altitude) at a low altitude of less than 30 kms.
 The state-of-the-art missile has its own mobile launcher, secure data link for interception, independent tracking
and homing capabilities and sophisticated radars


Prithvi II

 Prithvi-II is the first missile to be indigenously developed by the DRDO under the Integrated Guided Missile
Development Programme.
 Range: It is surface-to-surface medium range ballistic missile with strike range of 350 km.
 Warheads: It is capable of carrying 500 kg to 1000 kg of conventional as well as nuclear warheads.
 Fuel and stages:
o It is single-stage liquid-fuelled.
o It uses advanced inertial guidance system along with manoeuvring trajectory to hit its target precisely.
o It already has been inducted into India’s armed forces in 2003.
 Variants:
o Prithvi-I for the Indian Army,
o Prithvi-II for the Indian Air Force, and
o Dhanush Missile for Indian Navy.


Project 75

 Under Project 75, six Scorpene submarines are being built with assistance and technology transfer from DCNS
of France under deal signed in October 2005.
 The Scorpene class submarines are a class of diesel-electric attack submarine
 The first of the series INS Kalvari is completing sea trials and will be commissioned shortly.
 The other four submarines are expected to be launched at nine-month intervals after the INS Khanderi.
 At Present, the Indian Navy operates only 13 conventionally powered submarines and two nuclear submarines.


Project 75 I-class submarine

 It is follow-on of the Project 75 Kalvari-class submarine for the Indian navy.
 Under this project, the Indian Navy intends to acquire 6 diesel-electric submarines, which will also feature
advanced Air Independent Propulsion (AIP) systems to enable them to stay submerged for longer
duration and substantially increase their operational range.
 All six submarines are expected to be constructed in Indian shipyards.



 QR-SAM stands for quick reaction surface-to-air short range missile
 Developed by DRDO
 It has been designed to be a quick reaction missile.
 It is an all-weather weapon system capable of tracking and firing.
 The missile has a strike range of 25 to 30 km and can engage multiple targets.
 QR-SAM will complement the existing Akash short range SAM (surface-to-air missile) with a range of 25
kilometres which has already been inducted into the services.



 It is an indigenously developed drone
 It is a Medium Altitude Long Endurance (MALE) UAV
 It is multi-mission UAV which can conduct Intelligence, surveillance and reconnaissance missions for the armed
 It can also be used as an unmanned armed combat.
 It can fly up to an altitude of 22,000 feet and has endurance of over 20 hours.
 It is capable of carrying payloads for electronic and signal intelligence missions.
 It can fly at around 280 km/h.
 Rustom 2 can fly missions on manual as well as autonomous modes.
 Its data link developed by Defence Electronics Application Laboratory (DEAL) transmits the ISR data to the
armed forces’ ground control station in real time allowing prompt action.