18,19,20,21 Flashcards Preview

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Flashcards in 18,19,20,21 Deck (44):
1

Dismissed Pitt the elder

George III

2

Fredrick the great; best cultured and educated monarchs

Fredrick II

3

an intelligent woman who wished to reform Russia

Catherine II

4

Determined to make changes and enhance Habsburg's power

Joseph II

5

Between Europe, India, and America

Seven years' war

6

a treaty signed in 1763 by Great Britain, France, and Spain that ended the Seven Years War in Europe (1756–63) and the French and Indian War in North America.

Treaty of Paris

7

the original constitution of the US, ratified in 1781, which was replaced by the US Constitution in 1789.

Articles of Confederation

8

a body of fundamental principles or established precedents according to which a state or other organization is acknowledged to be governed.

Constitution

9

the first ten amendments to the US Constitution,

Bill of Rights

10

a term in common law for a person's property, entitlements and obligations

Estates

11

a palace built for Louis XIV near the town of Versailles, southwest of Paris. It was built around a chateau belonging to Louis XIII, which was transformed by additions in the grand French classical style.

Versailles

12

was a French playwright and political activist whose feminist and abolitionist writings reached a large audience.

Olympe de Gouges

13

a country in the Caribbean Sea that occupies the western third of the island of Hispaniola

Haiti

14

a battle fought on June 18, 1815, near the village of Waterloo (in what is now Belgium), in which Napoleon's army was defeated by the British (under the Duke of Wellington) and Prussians. The allied pursuit caused Napoleon's army to disintegrate entirely, ending his bid to return to power.

Waterloo

15

is the national motto of France and the Republic of Haiti, and is an example of a tripartite motto.

Liberty, Equality, Fraternity

16

A movement to end slavery, whether formal or informal. In Western Europe and the Americas, abolitionism is a historical movement to end the African and Indian slave trade and set slaves free.

Abolition of slavery

17

a lieutenant in the Revolution

Napoleon Bonaparte

18

an unprecedented increase in agricultural productivity in Great Britain

Agricultural Revolution

19

Scottish engineer. Among his many innovations, he greatly improved the efficiency of the Newcomen steam engine, which was then adopted for a variety of purposes. He also introduced the term horsepower.

James Watt

20

a building or group of buildings where goods are manufactured or assembled chiefly by machine.

Factory

21

a large building of prefabricated iron and glass resembling a giant greenhouse, designed by Joseph Paxton for the Great Exhibition of 1851 in Hyde Park, London, and re-erected at Sydenham near Croydon; it was accidentally burned down in 1936.

Crystal Palace

22

The famine and its effects permanently changed the island's demographic, political, and cultural landscape.

Irish potato famine

23

were 19th-century English textile workers (or self-employed weavers) who primarily began their movement between 1811 to 1816 to protest against newly developed technologies.

Luddites

24

has two senses: (1) compelling attractiveness or charm that can inspire devotion in others, (2) a divinely conferred power or talent.[1] As regards sense 1, scholars in political science, psychology, and management reserve the term for a type of leadership that is extraordinary

Chartism

25

usually means one who reforms, or who works for reform

Reformer

26

an international conference held 1814–15 to agree upon the settlement of Europe after the Napoleonic Wars.

Congress of Vienna

27

was a politician and statesman of Rhenish extraction and one of the most important diplomats of his era, serving as the Austrian Empire's Foreign Minister from 1809 and Chancellor from 1821 until the liberal revolutions of 1848 forced his resignation.

Klemens von Metternich

28

British politician and man of letters. He wrote on the issues of political emancipation and moderation, notably with respect to Roman Catholics and the American colonies.

Edmund Burke

29

was a successful war of independence waged by the Greek revolutionaries between 1821 and 1832 against the Ottoman Empire.

Greek Revolution

30

brother of Alexander I; reigned 1825–55. At home he pursued rigidly conservative policies, while his expansionism in the Near East led to the Crimean War.

Nicholas I

31

open to new behavior or opinions and willing to discard traditional values: they have more liberal views toward marriage and divorce than some people.

Liberalism

32

holding to traditional attitudes and values and cautious about change or innovation, typically in relation to politics or religion.

Conservatism

33

patriotic feeling, principles, or efforts.

Nationalism

34

a political and economic theory of social organization that advocates that the means of production, distribution, and exchange should be owned or regulated by the community as a whole.

Socialism

35

Vice President Thomas Jefferson defeated President John Adams

Revolutions of 1830

36

was one of a wave of revolutions in 1848 in Europe. In France the revolutionary events ended the Orleans monarchy (1830–48) and led to the creation of the French Second Republic.

Revolutions of 1848

37

US politician. He established the US central banking system as secretary of the treasury 1789–95 under President George Washington and advocated a strong central government. He was killed in a duel with Aaron Burr.

Alexander Hamilton

38

3rd president of the US 1801–09. A Democratic-Republican from Virginia, he played a key role in leadership during the American Revolution and was the principal drafter of the Declaration of Independence 1776.

Thomas Jefferson

39

US chief justice 1801–35. A Federalist from Virginia, he is considered the father of the American system of constitutional law, especially of the doctrine of judicial review.

John Marshall

40

7th president of the US 1829–37; known as Old Hickory. A Tennessee Democrat, he served in the US House of Representatives 1796–97 and as a US Senator 1797–98, 1823–25. As a general in the US Army during the War of 1812, he became known for his successful defense of New Orleans.

Andrew Jackson

41

movement in the arts and literature that originated in the late 18th century, emphasizing inspiration, subjectivity, and the primacy of the individual.

Romanticism

42

English poet. Much of his work was inspired by the Lake District. “Lyrical Ballads” (1798), which was composed with Coleridge and included “Tintern Abbey,” was a landmark in romanticism.

William Wordsworth

43

German composer. Despite increasing deafness, Beethoven wrote prodigiously: nine symphonies, thirty-two piano sonatas, sixteen string quartets, the opera Fidelio (1814), and the Mass in D (the Missa Solemnis, 1823).

Ludwig van Beethoven

44

was an English philosopher, political economist and civil servant.

John Stuart Mill