Flashcards in 18,19,20,21 Deck (44):
Dismissed Pitt the elder
Fredrick the great; best cultured and educated monarchs
an intelligent woman who wished to reform Russia
Determined to make changes and enhance Habsburg's power
Between Europe, India, and America
Seven years' war
a treaty signed in 1763 by Great Britain, France, and Spain that ended the Seven Years War in Europe (1756–63) and the French and Indian War in North America.
Treaty of Paris
the original constitution of the US, ratified in 1781, which was replaced by the US Constitution in 1789.
Articles of Confederation
a body of fundamental principles or established precedents according to which a state or other organization is acknowledged to be governed.
the first ten amendments to the US Constitution,
Bill of Rights
a term in common law for a person's property, entitlements and obligations
a palace built for Louis XIV near the town of Versailles, southwest of Paris. It was built around a chateau belonging to Louis XIII, which was transformed by additions in the grand French classical style.
was a French playwright and political activist whose feminist and abolitionist writings reached a large audience.
Olympe de Gouges
a country in the Caribbean Sea that occupies the western third of the island of Hispaniola
a battle fought on June 18, 1815, near the village of Waterloo (in what is now Belgium), in which Napoleon's army was defeated by the British (under the Duke of Wellington) and Prussians. The allied pursuit caused Napoleon's army to disintegrate entirely, ending his bid to return to power.
is the national motto of France and the Republic of Haiti, and is an example of a tripartite motto.
Liberty, Equality, Fraternity
A movement to end slavery, whether formal or informal. In Western Europe and the Americas, abolitionism is a historical movement to end the African and Indian slave trade and set slaves free.
Abolition of slavery
a lieutenant in the Revolution
an unprecedented increase in agricultural productivity in Great Britain
Scottish engineer. Among his many innovations, he greatly improved the efficiency of the Newcomen steam engine, which was then adopted for a variety of purposes. He also introduced the term horsepower.
a building or group of buildings where goods are manufactured or assembled chiefly by machine.
a large building of prefabricated iron and glass resembling a giant greenhouse, designed by Joseph Paxton for the Great Exhibition of 1851 in Hyde Park, London, and re-erected at Sydenham near Croydon; it was accidentally burned down in 1936.
The famine and its effects permanently changed the island's demographic, political, and cultural landscape.
Irish potato famine
were 19th-century English textile workers (or self-employed weavers) who primarily began their movement between 1811 to 1816 to protest against newly developed technologies.
has two senses: (1) compelling attractiveness or charm that can inspire devotion in others, (2) a divinely conferred power or talent. As regards sense 1, scholars in political science, psychology, and management reserve the term for a type of leadership that is extraordinary
usually means one who reforms, or who works for reform
an international conference held 1814–15 to agree upon the settlement of Europe after the Napoleonic Wars.
Congress of Vienna
was a politician and statesman of Rhenish extraction and one of the most important diplomats of his era, serving as the Austrian Empire's Foreign Minister from 1809 and Chancellor from 1821 until the liberal revolutions of 1848 forced his resignation.
Klemens von Metternich
British politician and man of letters. He wrote on the issues of political emancipation and moderation, notably with respect to Roman Catholics and the American colonies.
was a successful war of independence waged by the Greek revolutionaries between 1821 and 1832 against the Ottoman Empire.
brother of Alexander I; reigned 1825–55. At home he pursued rigidly conservative policies, while his expansionism in the Near East led to the Crimean War.
open to new behavior or opinions and willing to discard traditional values: they have more liberal views toward marriage and divorce than some people.
holding to traditional attitudes and values and cautious about change or innovation, typically in relation to politics or religion.
patriotic feeling, principles, or efforts.
a political and economic theory of social organization that advocates that the means of production, distribution, and exchange should be owned or regulated by the community as a whole.
Vice President Thomas Jefferson defeated President John Adams
Revolutions of 1830
was one of a wave of revolutions in 1848 in Europe. In France the revolutionary events ended the Orleans monarchy (1830–48) and led to the creation of the French Second Republic.
Revolutions of 1848
US politician. He established the US central banking system as secretary of the treasury 1789–95 under President George Washington and advocated a strong central government. He was killed in a duel with Aaron Burr.
3rd president of the US 1801–09. A Democratic-Republican from Virginia, he played a key role in leadership during the American Revolution and was the principal drafter of the Declaration of Independence 1776.
US chief justice 1801–35. A Federalist from Virginia, he is considered the father of the American system of constitutional law, especially of the doctrine of judicial review.
7th president of the US 1829–37; known as Old Hickory. A Tennessee Democrat, he served in the US House of Representatives 1796–97 and as a US Senator 1797–98, 1823–25. As a general in the US Army during the War of 1812, he became known for his successful defense of New Orleans.
movement in the arts and literature that originated in the late 18th century, emphasizing inspiration, subjectivity, and the primacy of the individual.
English poet. Much of his work was inspired by the Lake District. “Lyrical Ballads” (1798), which was composed with Coleridge and included “Tintern Abbey,” was a landmark in romanticism.
German composer. Despite increasing deafness, Beethoven wrote prodigiously: nine symphonies, thirty-two piano sonatas, sixteen string quartets, the opera Fidelio (1814), and the Mass in D (the Missa Solemnis, 1823).
Ludwig van Beethoven