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An abnormal opening of the urethra along the ventral aspect of the penis.

Hypospadias(TOPNOTCH)Robbins Basic Pathology, 8th ed., p 687


An abnormal opening of the urethra along the dorsal aspect of the penis.

Epispadias(TOPNOTCH)Robbins Basic Pathology, 8th ed., p 687


A congenital malformation of the bladder associated with epispadias.

Bladder extrophy(TOPNOTCH)Robbins Basic Pathology, 8th ed., p 688


A condition in which the prepuce cannot be retracted easily over the glans penis

Phimosis (TOPNOTCH)Robbins Basic Pathology, 8th ed., p 688


Appears grossly as a solitary, plaquelike lesion on the shaft of the penis. Histologic examination reveals morphologically malignant cells throughout the epidermis with no invasion of the underlying stroma. Has potential for malignant transformation.

Bowen disease(TOPNOTCH)Robbins Basic Pathology, 8th ed., p 688


Bowen disease which presents as an erythematous patch on the glans penis.

Erythroplasia of Queyrat(TOPNOTCH)Robbins Basic Pathology, 8th ed., p 688


Occurs in young, sexually active males, histologically identical to Bowen disease. Presents with multiple reddish brown papules on the glans and is most often transient, with rare progression to carcinoma in immunocompetent patients.

Bowenoid papulosis (TOPNOTCH)Robbins Basic Pathology, 8th ed., p 688


Appears as a gray, crusted, papular lesion, most commonly on the glans penis or prepuce, which infiltrates the underlying connective tissue to produce an indurated, ulcerated lesion with irregular margins.

Squamous cell carcinoma of the penis(TOPNOTCH)Robbins Basic Pathology, 8th ed., p 689


A variant of squamous cell carcinoma characterized by a papillary architecture, less striking cytologic atypia, and rounded, pushing deep margins.

Verrucous carcinoma (TOPNOTCH)Robbins Basic Pathology, 8th ed., p 689


Most common cause of scrotal enlargement, which is an accumulation of serous fluid within the tunica vaginalis usually secondary to infection or malignancy.

Hydrocele(TOPNOTCH)Robbins Basic Pathology, 8th ed., p 689


Represents failure of testicular descent into the scrotum which involves the right testis more commonly than the left. Causes increased risk of sterility and development of testicular cancer.

Cryptorchidism(TOPNOTCH)Robbins Basic Pathology, 8th ed., p 690


Most important cause of firm, painless enlargement of the testis.

Testicular neoplasms(TOPNOTCH)Robbins Basic Pathology, 8th ed., p 690


Composed of sheets of large, uniform cells with distinct cell borders, clear, glycogen-rich cytoplasm, and round nuclei with conspicuous nucleoli. The cells are often arrayed in small lobules with intervening fibrous septa.

Seminomas(TOPNOTCH)Robbins Basic Pathology, 8th ed., p 691


These tumors contain a mixture of medium-sized cells, large uninucleate or multinucleate tumor cells, and small cells with round nuclei that are reminiscent of secondary spermatocytes.

Spermatocytic seminoma(TOPNOTCH)Robbins Basic Pathology, 8th ed., p 691


Ill-defined, invasive masses containing foci of hemorrhage and necrosis. Poorly differentiated, pleomorphic cells in cords, sheets, or papillary formation; most contain some yolk sac and choriocarcinoma cells

Embryonal carcinoma of the testis(TOPNOTCH)Robbins Basic Pathology, 8th ed., p 692


Most common primary testicular neoplasm in children younger than 3 years of age.

Yolk sac tumors/endodermal sinus tumors(TOPNOTCH)Robbins Basic Pathology, 8th ed., p 692


Low cuboidal to columnar epithelial cells forming microcysts, sheets, glands, and papillae, often associated with eosinophilic hyaline globules. (+) Schiller-Duval bodies

Yolk sac tumors/endodermal sinus tumors(TOPNOTCH)Robbins Basic Pathology, 8th ed., p 692


Structures resembling primitive glomeruli, seen in yolk sac tumors.

Schiller-Duval bodies(TOPNOTCH)Robbins Basic Pathology, 8th ed., p 692


Cytotrophoblast and syncytiotrophoblast without villus formation

Choriocarcinomas (TOPNOTCH)Robbins Basic Pathology, 8th ed., p 692


Tissues from all three germ-cell layers with varying degrees of differentiation

Teratomas(TOPNOTCH)Robbins Basic Pathology, 8th ed., p 692


Teratoma which contain fully differentiated tissues from one or more germ cell layers (e.g., neural tissue, cartilage, adipose tissue, bone, epithelium) in a haphazard array.

Mature teratomas (TOPNOTCH)Robbins Basic Pathology, 8th ed., p 692


Teratoma which contain immature somatic elements reminiscent of those in developing fetal tissue.

Immature teratomas(TOPNOTCH)Robbins Basic Pathology, 8th ed., p 692


Characterized by the presence of an acute, neutrophilic inflammatory infiltrate, congestion, and stromal edema of the prostate.

Acute prostatitis (TOPNOTCH)Robbins Basic Pathology, 8th ed., p 695


Characterized by variable amount of lymphoid infiltrate, evidence of glandular injury, and, frequently, concomitant acute inflammatory changes of the prostate.

Chronic prostatitis (TOPNOTCH)Robbins Basic Pathology, 8th ed., p 695


Nodular hyperplasia is usually more pronounced in what part/s of the prostate?

Inner (central and transitional) region of the prostate(TOPNOTCH)Robbins Basic Pathology, 8th ed., p 696


Composed of proliferating prostatic glandular elements and fibromuscular stroma. The glandular lumina often contain inspissated, proteinaceous secretory material, termed corpora amylacea.

Nodular Hyperplasia of the Prostate (TOPNOTCH)Robbins Basic Pathology, 8th ed., p 697


Major hormonal stimulus for proliferation in nodular hyperplasia of the prostate.

DHT (Dihydrotestosterone)(TOPNOTCH)Robbins Basic Pathology, 8th ed., p 698


Most common area of the prostate affected by prostatic carcinoma.

Outer (peripheral) glands (TOPNOTCH)Robbins Basic Pathology, 8th ed., p 698


Concentration of this biochemical marker is of great value in monitoring patients after treatment for prostate cancer.

Prostate specific antigen (PSA)(TOPNOTCH)Robbins Basic Pathology, 8th ed., p 700


A commonly used method for grading prostatic carcinoma, which is based on features such as the degree of glandular differentiation, the architecture of the neoplastic glands, nuclear anaplasia, and mitotic activity.

Gleason system(TOPNOTCH)Robbins Basic Pathology, 8th ed., p 700


A chronic venereal infection caused by the spirochete Treponema pallidum, whose fundamental microscopic lesion is a proliferative endarteritis and an accompanying inflammatory infiltrate rich in plasma cells.

Syphilis(TOPNOTCH)Robbins Basic Pathology, 8th ed., p 702


An irregular, firm mass of necrotic tissue surrounded by resilient connective tissue. Contains a central zone of coagulation necrosis surrounded by a mixed inflammatory infiltrate composed of lymphocytes, plasma cells, epithelioid cells, giant cells, and a peripheral zone of dense fibrous tissue. Seen in tertiary syphilis.

Gumma(TOPNOTCH)Robbins Basic Pathology, 8th ed., p 702


This stage of syphilis is characterized by the presence of an indurated chancre at the site of initial inoculation, associated with painless regional lymphadenopathy.

Primary Syphilis (TOPNOTCH)Robbins Basic Pathology, 8th ed., p 702


Both nontreponemal and antitreponemal antibody tests are strongly positive in virtually all cases of this stage of syphilis.

Secondary syphilis(TOPNOTCH)Robbins Basic Pathology, 8th ed., p 702


In males this is manifested most often as a purulent urethral discharge, associated with an edematous, congested urethral meatus. Gram stain of urethral discharge, demonstrates the characteristic gram-negative, intracellular diplococci.

Gonorrhea (TOPNOTCH)Robbins Basic Pathology, 8th ed., p 705


A gram-negative intracellular bacterium that causes a disease that is clinically indistinguishable from gonorrhea in both men and in women.

Chlamydia trachomatis(TOPNOTCH)Robbins Basic Pathology, 8th ed., p 707


C. trachomatis infection causing a triad of reactive arthritis, conjunctivitis and generalized mucocutaneous lesions.

Reiter syndrome(TOPNOTCH)Robbins Basic Pathology, 8th ed., p 707


This STD is a chronic, ulcerative disease caused by certain strains of C. trachomatis, which presents with nonspecific urethritis, papular or ulcerative lesions involving the lower genitalia, regional adenopathy, or an anorectal syndrome.

Lymphogranuloma venereum (LGV) (TOPNOTCH)Robbins Basic Pathology, 8th ed., p 707


This STD is an acute, ulcerative infection caused by Haemophilus ducreyi, a small, gram-negative coccobacillus. The lesion is an irregular ulcer, whose base is covered by a shaggy, yellow-gray exudate. Regional lymph nodes are enlarged and tender.

Chancroid (Soft Chancre) (TOPNOTCH)Robbins Basic Pathology, 8th ed., p 707


A chronic inflammatory disease caused by Calymmatobacterium granulomatis. The organisms are demonstrable in Giemsa-stained smears of the exudate as minute coccobacilli within vacuoles in macrophages (Donovan bodies). Regional lymph nodes are typically spared.

Granuloma Inguinale (TOPNOTCH)Robbins Basic Pathology, 8th ed., p 708


The initial lesions of this infection are painful, erythematous vesicles on the mucosa or skin of the lower genitalia and adjacent extra-genital sites. Cowdry type A inclusions appear as light purple, homogeneous intranuclear structures surrounded by a clear halo.

HSV 2(TOPNOTCH)Robbins Basic Pathology, 8th ed., p 708


Caused by HPV types 6 and 11. Lesions vary from small, sessile lesions to large, papillary proliferations measuring several centimeters in diameter.

Condylomata acuminata (TOPNOTCH)Robbins Basic Pathology, 8th ed., p 709


What is the most common cause of hydronephrosis in infants and children?

Ureteropelvic junction obstruction (TOPNOTCH)


Fiery red appearance of the cervix is associated with what type of infection?

Strawberry cervix is associated with T. vaginalis infection (TOPNOTCH)


Approximately 70% of prostate carcinoma will arise in what zone of the gland?

Peripheral zone ( posterior location) (TOPNOTCH)


What is the best known grading system for Prostate Carcinoma?

Gleason System (TOPNOTCH)


Morphology: hallmark is nodularity due to glandular proliferation or dilation and to fibrous or muscular proliferation of the stroma



Nodular hyperplasia of the prostate originates almost exclusively in what zone of the gland?

Transition zone (TOPNOTCH)


Morphology: appear as minute, disseminated abscesses or diffuse edema, congestion, and boggy suppuration of the entire prostate

Acute prostatitis (TOPNOTCH)


Morphology: aggregation of numerous lymphocytes, plasma cells, and macrophages as well as neutrophils within the prostatic substance

Chronic prostatitis (TOPNOTCH)


Morphology: tumor cells are arranged in distinctive trabeculae with a tendency to form cordlike structures resembling immature seminiferous tubules

Sertoli Cell Tumors or Androblastoma (TOPNOTCH)


Morphology: rod shaped crystalloids of Reinke

Leydig/Interstitial Cell Tumors (TOPNOTCH)


What is the most common form of testicular neoplasm in men over the age of 60?

Testicular Lymphoma (TOPNOTCH)


Morphology: disorganized collection of lands, cartilage, smooth muscle, and immature stroma

Teratoma of the testes (TOPNOTCH)


What do you call the structures resembling endodermal sinuses that may be seen in Yolk Sac Tumor?

Schiller Duval Bodies (TOPNOTCH)


Morphology: reveals large cells with distinct cell borders, pale nuclei, clear or watery appearing cytoplasm, prominent nucleoli, and a sparse lymphocytic infiltrate

Seminona (TOPNOTCH)


Within how many hours should the testes be explored surgically and untwisted manually so the testes will be viable after a testicular torsion?

(TOPNOTCH) Within 6 hours


Morphology: clear vacuolization of the prickle cells

Condylomata acuminatum (koilocytosis) (TOPNOTCH)


What HPV DNA type is found in approximately 80% of Bowen Disease and bowenoid papulosis?



What type of bladder cancer is associated with long standing schistosomiasis?

Squamous cell carcinoma (TOPNOTCH)


In bladder carcinoma, the major decrease in survival is associated with tumor invading what layer of the bladder?

Muscularis propria (detrussor muscle) (TOPNOTCH)