1929-1934: Impact of the Depression and Hitler's Rise to Power Flashcards Preview

Germany 1890-1945: Democracy and Dictatorship > 1929-1934: Impact of the Depression and Hitler's Rise to Power > Flashcards

Flashcards in 1929-1934: Impact of the Depression and Hitler's Rise to Power Deck (41)
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1

What was the Wall Street Crash?

1929 - American stock market crashed and sent the USA into economic depression

2

How did the Wall Street Crash affect Germany?

USA recalled the loans paid to Germany under the Dawes Plan and the Young Plan. Germany could not afford to repay, so the economy collapsed

3

What happened to unemployment in this period?

Rose from 1.4 to 2 million over the winter of 1929-30. By 1933, it had rose to 6.1 million

4

Why did support for extremist parties grow in this period?

Many blamed the Weimar Constitution for the economic collapse

5

Who resigned as Chancellor in March 1930 after his government failed to agree on how best to solve the problems presented by the depression?

Hermann Müller

6

Who replaced Müller as Chancellor?

Heinrich Brüning

7

Why was Brüning considered an ineffective Chancellor?

In July 1930 Chancellor Brüning cut government expenditure, wages and unemployment pay. This added to the spiral of decline and unemployment continued to rise, as well as making those who had lost their jobs even poorer.

8

What did Hindenburg do which weakened the power of the Reichstag and the Weimar Constitution?

Brüning could not get the Reichstag to agree, so President Hindenburg used Article 48 to govern. This undermined democracy, weakened the power of the Reichstag and lowered confidence in the Constitution

9

How did the German people demonstrate their frustration in the elections?

By 1932, parties committed to the destruction of the Weimar Republic (left wing and right wing) held 319 seats out of a total of 608

10

Who did Hitler blame for the troubles faced by Germany?

The Allies, the 'November Criminals', Jews, Communists

11

Who did the Nazi's 25-Point Programme appeal to most?

The unemployed, the elderly, the middle class - those who were most affected by the Depression

12

How did Goebbels appeal to the ordinary German people?

-simplified the main policies so they could be easily understood by everyone - understood the effectiveness of propaganda and used this to gain publicity and support

13

What was the Führer cult?

Portrayed Hitler as Germany’s saviour – the man who would rescue the country from the grip of depression.

14

Who were the SA?

- known as the Brownshirts - ex-soldiers who became the Nazi Party's army - provided protection for leading Nazis, disrupted political meetings and rallies - played a significant role in Hitler's rise to power

15

Who were the SS?

- known as the Blackshirts - a splinter group of the SS - led by Heinrich Himmler - Hitler's personal bodyguards who became the secret police

16

What does the 'negative cohension' belief suggest?

People supported the Nazis, not because they shared the same views, but because they shared the same fears and dislikes

17

What happened in April 1932?

Hitler ran for President against Hindenburg and lost

18

How many votes did Hitler gain when he ran for President in 1932?

13 million compared to Hindenburg's 19 million

19

When did Brüning resign as Chancellor?

May 1932

20

Who replaced Brüning as Chancellor?

Hindenburg appointed Franz Von Papen, a conservative, as his replacement.

21

What was the outcome of the Reichstag elections in July 1932?

The Nazis became the largest single party with 230 seats, but still did not have a majority. Hitler demanded to be made Chancellor but Papen remained.

22

Why did Von Papen call for further elections in November 1932?

He wanted to win a majority in Parliament

23

What happened to the Nazi Party in the November elections?

Nazis lost 34 seats but remained the largest party with 196 seats

24

Who replaced Von Papen when he resigned in December 1932?

Kurt Von Schleicher, an army general

25

How did Von Schleicher try to split the Nazi party?

He asked leading Nazi, Gregor Strasser to be his Vice Chancellor. Hitler forced Strasser to decline.

26

What happened in January 1933?

Von Papen (acting as an advisor) and Hindenburg appointed Hitler as Chancellor and Von Papen as Vice Chancellor

27

Why did they appoint Hitler Chancellor?

They needed someone who had popularity in the Reichstag to restore faith in the constitution - They thought they could control Hitler and limit his authority

28

What were the main factors that led to Hitler being appointed as Chancellor?

His speaking skills, Nazi propaganda, Nazi policies, support from big businesses, the Depression, failure of the Weimar Government, back-room deals between Hindenburg and Von Papen, Treaty of Versailles,

29

What were the main factors that led to Hitler being appointed as Chancellor?

His speaking skills, Nazi propaganda, Nazi policies, support from big businesses, the Depression, failure of the Weimar Government, back-room deals between Hindenburg and Von Papen, Treaty of Versailles, Hitler's opponents' underestimation

30

When did the Reichstag Fire occur?

27th February 1933