Flashcards in 1C: Glacial Landscapes in the UK Deck (42):
what was ice cover of the UK like during the last ice age?
vast ice sheets spread over the UK from the north to cover all of northern Wales and northern England
what is abrasion?
the 'sandpapering effect' caused when rocks trapped beneath a glacier scratch and smooth underlying bedrock as the glacier moves down the valley
what is plucking?
melt water in the glacier freezes onto rocks and as the glacier moves forward it rips or 'plucks' rock fragments form the bedrock
describe the formation of corries
1) Snow collects in a natural hollow
2) The snow accumulates over time and turns into glacial ice
3) Material is added from above due to freeze thaw weathering
4) Abrasion and plucking steepen the back wall
5) Rotational slip ‘over-deepens’ the corrie, eroding downwards
6) Over-deepening leads to the formation of a rock lip at the head of the corrie
7) As the glacier increases in size it overspills the lip and flow downslope
8) Once the glacier retreats the corrie is left behind as a large hollow in a mountain slope (often with a tarn (lake) found at the bottom)
how do glaciers move via basal slip?
melt water beneath the glacier allows it to slide forward
how do glaciers move via internal deformation?
slipping and deformation of individual ice crystals within the glacier allows the glacier to move even when temperatures are so cold that basal flow cannot take place
what is bulldozing?
when rock debris is pushed forward at the front of the glacier
what is material carried by glaciers called?
why do glaciers deposit sediment?
1) melting at the snout means sediment is dumped on the ground (till)
2) glacier meets an obstacle
3) is glacier is overloaded with material
what is the difference between till and outwash?
1) till is poorly sorted with jagged rock fragments of all sizes
2) outwash is well sorted as it has been carried by the meltwater
describe the formation of an arete
when two corries develop side by side or back to back they make a ridge between them
describe the formation of a pyramidal peak
when several corries erode back to back until a sharp pyramidal peak is left
Describe the formation of glacial troughs?
1) snow accumulates in a V-shaped valley and turns into ice over time
2) glacier erodes sides of the valley, deepening and widening it via a combination of plucking and abrasion
3) when ice melts a wide flat bottomed You-shapes valley with steep sides is left behind
Describe the formation of truncated spurs
Interlocking Spurs are sawn off by the glacier during the formation of glacial troughs, leaving behind truncated spurs, which are found along the side of a glacial trough
Describe the formation of hanging valleys
1) After a glacial trough is formed the tributaries that used to flow into the river valley sides now exit abruptly through a gap in the new cliff shaped valley wall
2) the water cascades down from a high altitude and creates a waterfall
Describe the formation of ribbon lakes
1) river used to run through v shaped valley
2) v shaped valley eroded to form glacial trough
3) long narrow lake now left in wide basin
What is an erratic?
A piece of rock that differs in size and type from the native rock of the area where it rests
How do glacial erratics form?
1) rock enters the glaciers either in top by freeze thaw weathering or inside due to plucking
2) carries long distances by the glacier
3) glacier melts leaving behind moraine
Describe the formation of drumlins
1) melting glacier meets a small obstacle which is enough to encourage deposition of till
2) on first meeting the obstacle more deposition takes place which forms a blunt stoss end
3) the moving ice moulds the boulder clay into shape around the obstacle which forms the tapered lee end
4) over time the material is reshaped by further ice movements
What is lateral moraine?
1) moraine found along the edges of the glacier
2) material from the valley walls is broken up by freeze thaw weathering and falls onto the ice surface
3) carries along the sides of the glacier
4) when ice melts it forms a ridge of material along the valley sides
What is medial moraine?
1) formes from two lateral moraines joining in the middle of the glacier forming a line of new material
2) when two glaciers merge the two edges that meat form the centre line of the new glacier
3) existence of medial moraine is evidence that the glacier has more than one source
4) when ice melts it forms a ridge of material along the valley centre
What is terminal moraine?
1) forms at the snout of a glacier across the valley floor
2) marks the furthest extent of the ice
3) it is usually the feature which marks the end of unsorted deposits and the start of water sorted material
4) moraine is transported ahead of the glacier via bulldozing
Name an arête in the Lake District
Name a Corrie in the Lake District
Name a glacial trough in the Lake District
Keswick is situated in the floor of a glacial trough
Name a ribbon lake in the Lake District
Name a hanging valley found in the Lake District
Found at grisedale
Name a drumlin found in the Lake District
Found in swindale
What are the arguments for developement and the arguments for conservation?
1) more jobs
2) generate money for the economy
1) keep house prices down
2) preserve natural environment
3) conserve sense of community
What are some strong conflicts between different land uses?
1) wildlife conservation and reservoirs
2) farming and forestry
3) reservoirs and forestry
4) tourism (walking) and hunting and shooting
describe quarrying in glaciated upland areas
1) Glacial, upland regions are suited to quarrying because:
- the geology of upland areas is different to that of lowland areas (composed of tough resistant rock not found in low land areas)
- not very populated so few dangers or complaints when using explosives to shatter sections of rock.
2) There are 13 active quarries in the Lake District which mine slate for roofing and as decorative material.
3) Penryn Quarry in Snowdonia accounts for 50% of the UK’s slate production.
4) Limestone is mined in the Pennines to be used as building materials.
describe tourism in glaciated upland areas
1) The beautiful natural scenery of glaciated upland areas attracts lots of tourists.
2) The Lake District National Park attracted over 15 million people in 2014, who spent nearly ₤1000 million in the local economy.
3) Tourism provides over 16,000 full time jobs.
4) Activities include cruises in Windermere and Scafell Pike is the highest peak in England.
describe farming in glaciated upland areas
1) Difficult to farm crops due to steep slopes and low temperatures so animal grazing is better suited, if the species have adapted to graze on hilly slopes and withstand cold + wet + windy conditions.
2) The Lake District is famous for its native Herdwick sheep, and breeders have patented ‘Lakeland Herdwick’.
3) In the Scottish Highlands, sheep have been being grazed since the 1800s. Recently deer and highland cattle have been introduced to meet demands.
describe forestry in glaciated upland areas
1) Glacial troughs are good locations for forestry because conditions in them are less harsh and the soil is better quality.
2) There are over 2 million hectares of coniferous woodland in the UK, much of it in upland areas.
3) Private investors in the 1980s expanded forest cover in the Isle of Arran.
what are the physcial features in the Lake District which attract tourists?
1) Lakes like Windermere and Ullswater offer water sports, cruises and fishing
2) Mountainous landscapes with peaks like Scafell Pike (the tallest mountain in England) and Helvellyn are popular for walking and mountain Biking
3) Adventure Activities include abseiling, gorge scrambling and rock climbing
what are the human features in the Lake District which attract tourists?
1) The landscape has inspired writers and poets such as William Wordworth
2) Beatrix Potter’s house is now a National Trust Attraction
3) Scenic towns and villages, such as Grasmere and Keswick, are popular
4) Other monuments, such as Muncaster Castle at Ravenglass
what are the social impacts of tourism in the Lake District?
1) In 2014 nearly 15 million tourists visited the lake district – only 40 thousand locals
2) 90% of visitors arrive by road, creating lots of congestion
3) House prices increased due to 20% of property being either holiday rental or second homes
4) Jobs can be seasonal, poorly paid and unreliable
what are the economic impacts of tourism in the Lake District?
1) In 2014 tourists spent almost ₤1000 million in the lake district
2) Tourism provides 16,000 full time jobs
3) Traffic congestion slows down business communications
what are the environmental impacts of tourism in the Lake District?
1) ‘Honeypot’ sites and footpaths show signs of overcrowding – footpath erosion, litter, damage to verges by cars
2) High congestion means lots of fumes polluting the air and the surrounding environment, possibly damaging ecosystems
3) Walkers can damage farmland by trampling crops or leaving litter
4) Dogs can disturb sheep
how is congestion managed in the Lake District?
1) Several dual-carriageways have been built around the Lake District to improve access
2) Transport hubs, like at Ambleside, help create an interchange between parking, buses, ferries, walking and cycling - this helps to relieve congestion elsewhere
3) Park-and-ride bus schemes, like the ‘Honister Rambler’ have been expanded for tourists
how is footpath erosion managed in the Lake District?
1) ‘Fix the Fells’ maintains and repairs mountain paths
- Supported by the National Trust
- Use techniques such as stone pitching (large stones dug into path to create hard-wearing surface)
- Use local stones and sheep fleece to make well-drained solid surface
2) Still hundreds of kilometres of footpath in need of constant attention presents huge challenge