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Flashcards in 1st Exams Deck (136):
1

Stage where cell grows, makes a copy of its DNA and prepares to divide into 2 cells

Interphase

2

Regular sequence of growth and division that cells undergo which is divided into 3 main stages: interphase, mitosis, and cytokinesis

Cell cycle

3

Stage where the cells nucleus divides into two nuclei and produces two daughter cells

Mitosis

4

First and longest stage where chromatin bundles to form chromosomes. Nucleolus disappears and spindles form

Prophase

5

Second stage where all of the chromosomes are pulled to the center of the cell

Metaphase

6

Third stage where sister chromatids seperate and each chromatid is now a daughter. Spindles shortens and splits chromatid to opposite sides of the cell

Anaphase

7

Chromatids move to opposite sides of the cell and 2 new nuclei are formed

Telophase

8

Final stage where cytoplasm divides

Cytokinesis

9

Bundled up chromatin in the nucleus

Chromosomes

10

Joins sister chromatids at the center

Centromere

11

Deoxyribonucleic acid

Genetic material that carries info about an organism from one generation to the next

DNA

12

Disease caused by a disruption to the cell cycle leading to uncontrolled cell division

Cancer

13

Abnormal mass of essentially normal cells that always remain at the site and can be removed with surgery

Benign

14

Mass of cancerous cells that displace normal tissue as it grows. If not killed or removed it can spread or break off to other parts of the body

Malignant

15

Treatment of disease such as cancer using XDrays or similar forms of radiation

Radiation treatment

16

Treatment of disease such as cancer by the use of chemical substances, such as cytotoxic and other drugs

Chemotherapy

17

Where is the DNA found

In the chromatin in the nucleus

18

DNA has 4 kinds of...

Nitrogen bases

19

How many new identical strands are formed during DNA replication

2

20

What is a 5 carbon dioxide sugar called in a DNA nucleotide

Deoxyribose

21

When pairing, what does guanine always pair with

Cytosine

22

Process by which a cell captures energy in sunlight and uses to make food. Autotrophs use the Suns energy to convert carbon dioxide and water into oxygen and sugars

Photosynthesis

23

Obtain food from other organisms. Cannot make their own food

Heterotrophs

24

Use energy from the sun to make its own food

Autotrophs

25

In plant cells, capture energy and add in photosynthesis

Chloroplasts

26

Green pigment in chloroplast

Chlorophyll

27

Small openings on leaves

Stomata

28

A cell moves particles using energy against the concentration gradient by

Active transport

29

Large particle are engulfed, the enclosed by the cell membrane in a process called

Endocytosis

30

If a cell is placed in salt water, water leaves the cell by

Osmosis

31

Not a form of passive transport

Endocytosis

32

When a plant is placed in a ---- solution, there will be a loss of water causing the plant to wilt

Hypertonic

33

Where does photosynthesis mostly occur

The leaves of a plant

34

--- in a plant cells capture energy using a pigment called chlorophyll

Chloroplasts

35

Carbon dioxide enters the leaves through ----

Stomata

36

In photosynthesis, light energy from the sun is converted Into --- energy

Chemical

37

What organelle does photosynthesis take place in?

Chloroplasts

38

What organelle does cellular respiration take place in

Mitochondria

39

Scientific study of heredity

Genetics

40

The passing on of characteristics from parents to offspring

Heredity

41

An Australian monk, discovered important facts about heredity using garden peas

Gregor Mendel

42

Self-pollinated all offspring will have the same traits as parents

True breeding

43

Pollen carried from one flower to a different flower by wind, insect, or animal

Cross pollinating

44

Offspring of parents that have different forms of a trait

Hybrid

45

Genetically determined characteristics (different forms such as red, brown, or blonde hair

Traits

46

One set of instructions for an inherited traits

Genes

47

Different firms of genes

Alleles

48

The way an organism works and behaves (talk or short)

Phenotype

49

The allele combination of an organism (TT,Tt,tt)

Genotype

50

Two alleles for the trait are the same (TT,tt)

Homozygous

51

The two alleles for the trait are different (Tt)

Heterozygous

52

Used to predict the proportions of possible genotype a in offspring

Punnett square

53

A type of cell division that produces 4 cells, each with half the number of chromosomes as the parent cells

Meiosis

54

A sex cell, is a haploid cell

Gamete

55

A sex cell, contains only one of each kind of chromosomes

Haploid

56

Cells found in the body cells, which have two of each kind of chromosome

Diploid

57

How many traits did Mendel study at a time

1

58

What plant did Mendel use

Pea plant

59

Mendel was the first person to succeed in predicting how --- are passed to the next generation

Traits

60

Mendel used --- peas in his heredity studies

True breeding

61

A --- is the offspring of parents that have different forms of a trait

Hybrid

62

Mendel is sometimes referred to as the father of ---

Heredity

63

The allele combination of an organism

Genotype

64

Factors that determine traits

Genes

65

Genes for different traits are inherited independently of each other

Law of independent assortment

66

Cross that involved two traits being studied

Dihybrid cross

67

Alleles for traits are the same

Homozygous

68

Different forms of genes

Alleles

69

Every organism has two alleles which separate when gametes are produced

Law of segregation

70

This cross is used when studying one trait

Monohybrid cross

71

When two alleles for a trait are different

Heterozygous

72

The way an organism looks or behaves

Phenotype

73

The microscope that allowed scientists to see structures inside cells

Electron microscope

74

First scientist to see living cells in pond water using a microscope

Leeuwenhoek

75

First scientist who observed cork was made of tiny cells

Robert Hooke

76

Microscope that uses two or more lenses and a light source to magnify objects

Compound light microscope

77

Basic unit of all living things

Cells

78

The plasma membrane is a --- boundary of a cell

Flexible

79

Selective permeability allows --- molecules to pass through the plasma membrane

Some

80

The --- mosaic model describes the plasma membrane and its molecules

Fluid

81

What kind of layer is the plasma membrane

Bilayer

82

What makes up a phospholipid

Glycerol, two fatty acid chains, and a phosphate group

83

Condensed chromatin that contains genetic info passed on to offspring

Chromosomes

84

A sac-like structure used for storage (water, food, enzymes)- large single one in plant cells

Vacuole

85

Made of microtubules and help with cell division

Centrioles

86

Long whip like projections that aid in movement usually just one or two

Flagella

87

Where proteins are assembled according to the DNA directions

Ribosomes

88

Makes ribosomes inside nucleus

Nucleolus

89

Transform chemical energy from foods into useful energy for both plant and animal cells

Mitochondria

90

Directs activities of cells organelles

Nucleus

91

Network of protein filament that helps cells keep their shape and helps with movement protein filaments called microtubules/micro filaments

Cytoskeleton

92

Sorts and packages proteins and materials into structures called vesicles then shipped out

Golgi apparatus

93

Thick fluid outside nucleus throughout cell

Cytoplasm

94

Remove wastes using digestive enzymes

Lysosomes

95

Strands of DNA located throughout nucleus

Nuclear envelope

96

Short hair like projections that wave to help move cell

Cilia

97

Surrounds nucleus and has thousands of pores allowing material in and out of nucleus

Nuclear envelope

98

Site where lipids for membrane are assembled along with proteins- two types: rough and smooth

Endoplasmic reticulum

99

Found in green plant cells and some Protists capturing sun energy and converting it to chemical energy

Chloroplasts

100

Traits controlled by genes located on sex chromosomes

Sex linked traits

101

Blood type is an example of this

Codominant alleles

102

First 22 pairs of homologous chromosomes

Autosomes

103

When neither allele of the parent is completely dominant, offspring shows mixed phenotype

Incomplete dominance

104

Having more than two alleles for a genetic trait

Multiple alleles

105

23rd pair of chromosomes in Human

Sex chromosomes

106

Inheritance pattern of a trait that is controlled by two or more genes

Polygenic inheritance

107

Proteins are made up of ---

Amino acids

108

In DNA, --- always forms hydrogen bonds with guanine

Cytosine

109

The message of the DNA code is info for building ---

Proteins

110

--- is the sugar molecule found in RNA

Ribose

111

The genetic info in the DNA is transcribed to the --- strand

mRNA

112

--- carry specific amino acids to the ribosome

tRNA

113

Adenine, guanine, cytosine and uracil are nitrogen bases found in ---

RNA

114

Any change In a gene or chromosome is called a ---

Mutation

115

Dolly the sheep was a successful example

Clone

116

Breeders cross two genetically different individuals in hopes of getting better traits

Hybridization

117

Breeders cross two genetically different individuals in hopes of getting best traits

Hybridization

118

Indentifies the DNA sequence of every gene in the human genome

Human genome project

119

Genes from one organism are transferred into the DNA of another

Genetic engineering

120

Process of selecting organisms with desired traits to be parents of next generation

Selective breeding

121

Inserts copies of a gene directly into a persons cell

Gene therapy

122

All the DNA in one cell of an organism

Genome

123

Involves crossing two individuals that have similar characteristics

Inbreeding

124

Diagram or family tree of genetic inheritance used by geneticists to map genetic traits

Pedigree

125

Photo of a persons chromosome arranged in pair and can reveal whether a person has the correct number of chromosomes

Karyotype

126

Process of selecting organisms with desired traits to be parents of next generation

Selective breeding

127

All the DNA in one cell of an organism

Genome

128

Breeders cross two genetically different individuals in hopes of offspring having best traits from both parents

Hybridization

129

Subjects closely resembling the treatment group in many demographic variables but not receiving the active medication or factor under study and thereby serving as a comparison group when treatment results are evaluated

Control

130

A set of principles and procedures for the systematic pursuit of knowledge involving the recognition and formulation of a problem, the collection of data through observation and experience, in the formulation of testing of hypothesis

Scientific method

131

An idea or theory that is not proven but that leads to further study or discussion

Hypothesis

132

A final decision or judgment: opinion or decision that is formed after a period of thought or research

Conclusion

133

To study something closely and carefully

Analyze

134

The activity of getting info about the subject

Research

135

Able or likely to change or be changed: not always the same

Variable

136

To reach a conclusion based on known facts

Infer