Genetic Test Flashcards Preview

7th Grade Science > Genetic Test > Flashcards

Flashcards in Genetic Test Deck (34):
1

Genome

All the DNA in one cell of an organism

2

Inbreeding

Involves crossing two individuals that have similar characteristics

3

Hybridization

Breeders cross to genetically different individuals in hopes of getting best traits

4

Clone

Dolly the sheep

Organism that has exactly the same genes as the organism from which it was produced

5

Genetic engineering

Genes from one organism are transferred into the DNA of another

6

Gene therapy

Inserts copies of a gene directly into a person's cell

7

Human genome project

Identifies the DNA sequence of every gene in the human genome

8

Proteins are made up of (Amino acids, ribosomes)

Amino acids

9

In DNA,(cytosine,thymine) always forms hydrogen bonds with guanine

Cytosine

10

The message of DNA code is info for building (hydrogen bonds, proteins)

Proteins

11

(Deoxyribose, ribose) is the sugar molecule found in RNA

Ribose

12

The genetic info in the DNA is transcribed to the (mRNA, tRNA) strand

mRNA

13

(tRNA, mRNA) carry specific amino acids to the ribose

tRNA

14

Adenine, guanine, cytosine and uracil are nitrogen bases found in (DNA, RNA)

RNA

15

Any change in a gene or chromosome is called a (typo, mutation)

Mutation

16

Codominant alleles

Both alleles show equally

17

Incomplete dominance

When neither allele of the parents is completely dominant, offspring shows mixed dominance

18

Multiple alleles

Having more than 2 alleles for a genetic trait

19

Sex chromosomes

23rd pair of chromosomes in humans

20

Sex-linked traits

Traits controlled by genes located on the sex chromosome

21

Polygenic inheritance

Inheritance patterns of a trait that is controlled by 2 or more genes

22

Autosomes

First 22 pairs of homologous chromosomes

23

Sugar in RNA

Ribose

24

Copies coded message from DNA and carries message to ribosome in the cytoplasm

mRNA

25

tRNA

Carries amino acids to the ribosomes and adds them to growing proteins

26

RNA

Ribonucleic acid- genetic "messenger" which carries message to ribosomes in the cytoplasm

27

Mutation

Any change in a gene or chromosome

28

Pedigree

Diagram or family tree of genetic inheritance used by geneticists to map genetic traits

29

Karyotype

Photo of a persons chromosome arranged in pair and can reveal whether a person has the correct number of chromosomes

30

Why do some traits exhibit a large number phenotypes

Because you have a ton of genes that code for each trade

31

What does mRNA and tRNA stand for

Messenger RNA
transfer RNA

32

Give an example of selective breeding

Fast horse+fast horse

33

How are genetic disorders diagnosed

Pedigree
Karyotype

34

Selective breeding

Process of selecting organisms with desired traits to be parents of next-generation