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When is surgery indicated for an abdominal aortic aneurysm?

More than 5 cm in size or growth >4 mm/year or if symptomatic


What is the classic triad of ruptured abdominal aortic aneurysm

Abdominal pain, hypotension, pulsatile abdominal mass


What is the name and treatment of the fracture of the fifth metacarpal that occurs after striking an object with a fist?

Boxer fracture; treat with closed reduction and ulnar splint. If skin broken, débride and give amoxicillin/clavulanate (Augmentin), cefuroxime (Ceftin) or doxycycline for human oral pathogens


What is the name and treatment of the fracture of the carpal bone that causes tenderness in the anatomical snuffbox?

Scaphoid fracture. Treatment is thumb Spica cast.


What is the most common fracture of the wrist that results from a fall on an outstretched hand and causes fracture of the distal radius with dorsal displacement of the distal fragment?

Colles' fracture. Treat with closed reduction and cast.


What is the name and treatment of ulnar diaphyseal fracture and dislocation of the radial head?

Monteggia fracture (?nightstick fracture?). Treatment is closed reduction of the radial head and open reduction, internal fixation of ulna.


What is the name and treatment of radial head subluxation caused by forceful pulling by the hand?

Nursemaid elbow. Treatment is manual reduction by supination at 90 elbow flexion.


What is the name and treatment of the most common shoulder dislocation (95%)?

Anterior shoulder dislocation. Treatment is closed reduction, sling, rehabilitation.


What is the name and treatment of the most common fracture in school–aged children, which may also threaten the brachial artery?

Supracondylar fracture of the humerus. Treatment is closed reduction and pinning.


8 year old boy with involuntary tics, such as eye blinking, coughing, throat clearing, sniffing, and facial movements; coprolalia. What is the diagnosis?

Tourette's syndrome


What are the signs of basilar skull fracture?

Hemotympanum, clear otorrhea/rhinorrhea, raccoon eyes, Battle sign (mastoid ecchymosis)


Ecchymosis of the lower abdomen from a seatbelt is a sign of what injury?

Small bowel perforation


What is Beck's triad, which is seen in cardiac tamponade and tension pneumothorax?

Hypotension, jugular venous distension, decreased heart sounds


What are the signs of tension pneumothorax?

Unilateral absence of breath sounds, jugular venous distension, mediastinal shift


Difficulty swallowing liquids which is greater than difficulty with solids suggests what type of disorder?

Oropharyngeal dysphagia


Difficulty swallowing both liquids and solids occurs in what disorder?

Esophageal dysphagia


How does mechanical obstruction affect the ability to swallow solids and liquids?

Difficulty swallowing solids is greater than difficulty swallowing liquids when mechanical obstruction is the cause


How is Zenker's diverticulum treated?

Myomectomy and excision of diverticulum


What are the causes of esophageal dysphagia?

Achalasia, esophageal stricture, esophageal web, scleroderma, esophageal cancer


What is achalasia?

Ganglionic loss causing inability of the lower esophageal sphincter to relax and loss of peristalsis; ?bird beak? appearance on barium swallow and increased pressure of lower esophageal sphincter.


What is Plummer–Vinson syndrome?

Iron–deficiency anemia, dysphagia, esophageal web, atrophic glossitis


What is Barrett's esophagus?

Columnar metaplasia of squamous epithelium of distal esophagus, occurring because of acid injury from gastroesophageal reflux disease


What is the complication of Barrett's esophagus?

Esophageal cancer


Which esophageal cancer is associated with alcohol and tobacco use?

Squamous cell cancer


What is the surgical term for esophageal perforation caused by severe vomiting?

Boerhaave's syndrome


What are the signs of gastroesophageal reflux disease?

Substernal chest pain, heartburn, regurgitation, which are worse after meals and in the supine position


How is Barrett's esophagus treated?

Antacids, H2 blockers or proton pump inhibitors; surveillance EGD and biopsies


List the complications of gastroesophageal reflux disease

Ulceration, strictures, Barrett's esophagus, bleeding, aspiration


What are the common causes of epigastric pain?

Peptic ulcer disease, gastritis, pancreatitis, cholecystitis, coronary ischemia, gastroesophageal reflux disease


What is priapism?

Intractable, painful erection; caused by venous thrombosis, trazodone, sickle cell disease