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1

When is surgery indicated for an abdominal aortic aneurysm?

More than 5 cm in size or growth >4 mm/year or if symptomatic

2

What is the classic triad of ruptured abdominal aortic aneurysm

Abdominal pain, hypotension, pulsatile abdominal mass

3

What is the name and treatment of the fracture of the fifth metacarpal that occurs after striking an object with a fist?

Boxer fracture; treat with closed reduction and ulnar splint. If skin broken, débride and give amoxicillin/clavulanate (Augmentin), cefuroxime (Ceftin) or doxycycline for human oral pathogens

4

What is the name and treatment of the fracture of the carpal bone that causes tenderness in the anatomical snuffbox?

Scaphoid fracture. Treatment is thumb Spica cast.

5

What is the most common fracture of the wrist that results from a fall on an outstretched hand and causes fracture of the distal radius with dorsal displacement of the distal fragment?

Colles' fracture. Treat with closed reduction and cast.

6

What is the name and treatment of ulnar diaphyseal fracture and dislocation of the radial head?

Monteggia fracture (?nightstick fracture?). Treatment is closed reduction of the radial head and open reduction, internal fixation of ulna.

7

What is the name and treatment of radial head subluxation caused by forceful pulling by the hand?

Nursemaid elbow. Treatment is manual reduction by supination at 90 elbow flexion.

8

What is the name and treatment of the most common shoulder dislocation (95%)?

Anterior shoulder dislocation. Treatment is closed reduction, sling, rehabilitation.

9

What is the name and treatment of the most common fracture in school–aged children, which may also threaten the brachial artery?

Supracondylar fracture of the humerus. Treatment is closed reduction and pinning.

10

8 year old boy with involuntary tics, such as eye blinking, coughing, throat clearing, sniffing, and facial movements; coprolalia. What is the diagnosis?

Tourette's syndrome

11

What are the signs of basilar skull fracture?

Hemotympanum, clear otorrhea/rhinorrhea, raccoon eyes, Battle sign (mastoid ecchymosis)

12

Ecchymosis of the lower abdomen from a seatbelt is a sign of what injury?

Small bowel perforation

13

What is Beck's triad, which is seen in cardiac tamponade and tension pneumothorax?

Hypotension, jugular venous distension, decreased heart sounds

14

What are the signs of tension pneumothorax?

Unilateral absence of breath sounds, jugular venous distension, mediastinal shift

15

Difficulty swallowing liquids which is greater than difficulty with solids suggests what type of disorder?

Oropharyngeal dysphagia

16

Difficulty swallowing both liquids and solids occurs in what disorder?

Esophageal dysphagia

17

How does mechanical obstruction affect the ability to swallow solids and liquids?

Difficulty swallowing solids is greater than difficulty swallowing liquids when mechanical obstruction is the cause

18

How is Zenker's diverticulum treated?

Myomectomy and excision of diverticulum

19

What are the causes of esophageal dysphagia?

Achalasia, esophageal stricture, esophageal web, scleroderma, esophageal cancer

20

What is achalasia?

Ganglionic loss causing inability of the lower esophageal sphincter to relax and loss of peristalsis; ?bird beak? appearance on barium swallow and increased pressure of lower esophageal sphincter.

21

What is Plummer–Vinson syndrome?

Iron–deficiency anemia, dysphagia, esophageal web, atrophic glossitis

22

What is Barrett's esophagus?

Columnar metaplasia of squamous epithelium of distal esophagus, occurring because of acid injury from gastroesophageal reflux disease

23

What is the complication of Barrett's esophagus?

Esophageal cancer

24

Which esophageal cancer is associated with alcohol and tobacco use?

Squamous cell cancer

25

What is the surgical term for esophageal perforation caused by severe vomiting?

Boerhaave's syndrome

26

What are the signs of gastroesophageal reflux disease?

Substernal chest pain, heartburn, regurgitation, which are worse after meals and in the supine position

27

How is Barrett's esophagus treated?

Antacids, H2 blockers or proton pump inhibitors; surveillance EGD and biopsies

28

List the complications of gastroesophageal reflux disease

Ulceration, strictures, Barrett's esophagus, bleeding, aspiration

29

What are the common causes of epigastric pain?

Peptic ulcer disease, gastritis, pancreatitis, cholecystitis, coronary ischemia, gastroesophageal reflux disease

30

What is priapism?

Intractable, painful erection; caused by venous thrombosis, trazodone, sickle cell disease