Flashcards in .2 Deck (33):
why did hitler turn on the SA
their leader, rohm was getting too powerful, he was also worried that the SA were planning a secret coup. additionally Rohm went against the Nazi policies ( fear he was homosexual)
when was the night of the long knives, how many died
29th of June 1934, 400 died
what was the oath of loyalty
after president Hindenburg died, hitler made civil servants and the army swear an oath of allegiance directly to hitler himself.
how did hitler gain control of the schools
he had history textbooks re written, teachers had to attend courses in the school holidays. INDOCTRINATION
explain how the Nazis were able to control how the world saw them at the 1936 olympics
they removed anti-Semitic posters and propaganda so that the world would show them as friendly
name the famous Nazi film director
what was the role of a woman in Nazi germany
kinder, kirche, kuche. bring up a family
explain the catholic church in Nazi germany
the catholic church signed the concordat, this meant that hitler would not interfere with the church; however in 1937, Hitler arrested 200 priests on the grounds of financial and sexual impropriety
explain the protestant church in Nazi germany
the protestant church became known as the Reich church, 40 million members. pastors took the oath of loyalty to hitler.
rise to chancellor: propaganda
Goebbels is head of propaganda, they used posters - short and simple slogans, leaflets, newspapers, rallies, speeches, meetings. this propaganda consisted of criticism over the TOV and jews. hitler over Germany campaign in the presedential election, 1932, 13million votes to hindenburgs 19 million
rise to chancellor: terror
SA set up in 1921, led by Ernst Rohm. they broke up meetings of political opponents and to encourage violence in the street so they could be shown as peacekeepers. they were liked by businesses, 1934 - 2 million SA.
rise to chancellor: weaknesses of the Weimar government
proportional representation/ coalition government/weak and no clear leader/ parties sharing power/ Hindenburg & article 48/ unpopular chancellors (von papen & von schleicher)/ bruning - another un popular chancellor who cut the unemployment benefit and raised taxes
rise to chancellor: wall st crash
1929 wall street crash, world wide economic depression. usa demanded the money back from the dawes and young plan. by 1932 - 6 million are unemployed
rise to dictator: elimination of political parties
R.Fire after hitler got chancellor- communist found inside so communism was blamed, hitler was able to persuade Hindenburg to use article 48 to pass the law for the protection of people and state, hitler could now arrest who he likes and take control of the press. ENABLING ACT: march 1933 election- hitler had 44%, he needed 66%, hitler had the communists arrested and the centre party and nationalist party had a coalition with the Nazis = gave him 52%. on election day SA forbid opposition voters through to the polls, many social demorcrats did not turn up. the enabling act was passed 444:94 - the Reichstag had voted itself out of existence. in july 1933 political parties are banned & the law against the formation of new parties
rise to dictator: terror
1925 SS, night of long knives = elimination of SA. death head units/ cc camps/ death camps/ block wardens/ informers/ gestapo
rise to dictator: propaganda
culture/ art/radio/newspapers/cinemas/books/rallies/1936 berlin olympics
rise to dictator: control over life
what was autarky
what was RAD
a national labour service, they gave men jobs in building roads, hospitals, schools etc. they lived in camps and received little money
which organisation took the place of trade unions
the german labour front
explain the KDF
set up leisure activities and was very popular with the workers, the purpose was to keep the workers happy. they provided cheap holidays, ocean cruises and walking holidays
what happened to the richer jews
they left the country
how did jewish businesses suffer
a boycott was ordered in 1933, 1934- jewish shops had to be marked with a star of david
explain the Nuremburg laws
passed in 1935, the jews lost their rights to be citizens , marriage between jews and non jews were forbidden.
define Kristallnacht, what did this entail
the night of they broken glass, 10,000shops run by jews were destroyed, homes and synagogues were set on fire, the jewish community was fined and ordered to pay money to fix the damage caused
in Kristallnacht, how many jews died and how many went to concentration camps
100 died, 20,000 sent concentration camps
what happened to tramps and beggars under Nuremburg laws
they were arrested and forced into labour
when did compulsory sterilisation begin, explain it
1933, for people with: disabilities/deformatities/mental health problems/ physical health problems/ deression/ alcoholism....
by 1937 how many sterilisations had occured
describe the T4 program, what did this lead to
top secret plan to kill disabled children this then expanded to adults who were seen to have an illness, it killed 70,000
led to the action programme, killing continued and by 1945 280,000 had died.
why were the Nazis able to control opposition efficiently?
through arrests, the courts ( that were under oath to hitler), and punishment
name a quote by heinrich Himmler about terror
'the best political weapon is the weapon of terror, we do not ask for their love, only their fear'