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Flashcards in 2 - Biological Molecules Deck (42)
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1

What are carbohydrates?

- Contain carbon, hydrogen and oxygen
- Examples include starch and glycogen

2

What is starch made of?

Maltose

3

What is glycogen made of?

Glucose

4

What are proteins?

- Contain carbon, hydrogen, oxygen and nitrogen
- Made of long chains of amino acids

5

What are lipids?

- Contain carbon, hydrogen and oxygen
- Made of fatty acids and glycerol

6

Describe a test for glucose

- Use Benedict's reagent
- Add to a sample and heat but don't boil
- Colour change from blue to green-yellow-orange-red (depending on concentration)

7

Describe a test for starch

- Use iodine
- Colour changes from brown/orange to blue/black

8

Carbohydrates

Found - pasta, rice, sugar
Functions - provides energy

9

Lipids

Found - butter, oily fish
Functions - provides energy, acts as an energy store and provides insulation

10

Proteins

Found - meat, fish
Function - needed for growth and repair of tissues and to provide energy in an emergency

11

Vitamin A

Found - liver
Function - helps to improve vision and keeps hair and skin healthy

12

Vitamin C

Found - oranges
Function - prevents scurvy

13

Vitamin D

Found - eggs, sunlight
Function - helps calcium absorption

14

Calcium

Mineral ion
Found - milk, cheese
Function - helps makes bones and teeth

15

Iron

Mineral ion
Found - red meat
Function - helps make haemoglobin for healthy blood

16

Water

Found - food and drink
Function - for every bodily function. Also for replacing water lost by sweating, breathing and urination

17

Dietary fibre

Found - wholemeal bread
Function - aids the movement of food through the alimentary canal

18

What are the energy requirements?

Activity level - more active = more energy needed
Age - younger = more energy for growth
Pregnancy - pregnant = more energy needed for the baby to develop

19

Describe an experiment to find the energy from food

- Find a food that burns easily e.g. peanuts or pasta
- Weigh a small amount and put it on a mounted needle
- Add 25cm3 of water to a boiling tube (held with a clamp)
- Measure the temperature of the water then set fire to the food (away from the water)
- Put the flame directly under the water and keep relighting until not possible
- Measure the temperature of the water again
- Energy in food = mass of water x temperature change of water x 4.2 (amount of energy to raise the temperature of 1g by 1*C)
- Energy per gram of food = energy in food / mass of food

20

What is the function of bile?

- Produced in the liver
- Stored in the gall bladder
- Released in the small intestines
- Neutralises the acidic stomach so enzymes can work best
- Emulsifies fats so there is a bigger surface area for the lipase enzymes to work on (makes digestion faster)

21

Amylase

Converts starch to maltose

22

Maltase

Converts maltose to glucose

23

Protease

Converts proteins into amino acids

24

Lipase

Converts lipids into glycerol and fatty acids

25

What do digestive enzymes do?

They break down large, insoluble molecules into small, soluble ones

26

What is the alimentary canal?

Your gut
- Mouth
- Oesophagus
- Stomach
- Liver
- Pancreas
- Gall bladder
- Small intestines
- Large intestines
- Anus

27

Mouth

- Salivary glands produce amylase enzyme
- Teeth break down food mechanically

28

Stomach

- Pummels food with muscular walls
- Produces protease enzyme (pepsin)
- Produces HCl to kill bacteria and acidify the stomach

29

Liver

- Produces bile

30

Pancreas

- Produces protease, amylase and lipase enzymes
- Releases them into the small intestines