2 ' Endocrine System Flashcards Preview

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Flashcards in 2 ' Endocrine System Deck (60):
1

Complex network of integrated organs that communicate and help regulate all bodily systems to manage internal activists and maintain homeostasis

True

2

Homeostasis

Tendency of the body to seek and maintain a condition of valence or equilibrium within its internal environment

3

Eustress

A positive, desirable form of stress that influences physical or physiological health

4

Distress

A negative form of stress that influences physical or physiological health

5

Hormones direct actions of other tissues via chemical messaging

True

6

Hormone receptors

Receptor protein on the surface or interior of a cell that can bind to a specific hormone

7

Target cell specificity

Hormones circulate to all tissues, but only influence cells with associated receptors

8

Growth hormone (GH)
Promotes cell division and proliferation throughout the body by facilitating protein synthesis

True

9

Growth hormone (GH)
Protects glycogen reserves and limits carbohydrate (CHO) metabolism by encouraging the mobilization and use of lipids for fuel during exercise

True

10

Growth hormone (GH)
Perceived demands on the body (exercise intensity) determines total GH production

True

11

Growth hormone (GH)
High-intensity training increases production, potentially increasing strength, power, and muscle size

True

12

Testosterone
Produced in the gonadal glands of men and women

True

13

Testosterone
Responsible for muscle tissue interaction, which explains visual and quantifiable differences between men and women

True

14

Testosterone
Concentrations in women and ten times less than that of men

True

15

Testosterone
Concentrations increase in response to excessive in both genders; high-intensity, total-body execersise (e.g., squat, deadlift) elicit greater responses

True

16

Testosterone
Nervous system interaction - testosterone enhances strength and size via direct influence on neurons and structural proteins

True

17

Pancreatic Hormones have two primary functions

Produce digestive enzymes that are released into the small intestines to break down far, CHO, and protein so they can be absorbed into the blood stream and regulate blood sugar via the release of two endocrine hormones, insulin and glucagon

18

Insulin

Natural anabolic hormone made by the pancreas

19

Glucagon

Stimulates an increase in blood sugar levels when they are low (opposes insulin)

20

After a meal, when blood sugar rises, the release of insulin drives glucose into a muscle and liver cells to be stored as glycogen

True

21

Excess sugar is deposited in fat cells at triglycerides to ensure normalization of blood glucose

True

22

Excess insulin blocks lipolysis, further promoting fat storage

True

23

Low blood glucose is referred to as hypoglycemia; alpha cells in the pancreas are stimulated to release glucagon

True

24

Glucagon travels to the liver to stimulate the release of stored glucose (glycogen) into circulation to stabilize blood glucose

True

25

Thyroid acts to increase the metabolic rate of all cells

True

26

Heavy exercise increases release; possibly contributes to immediate, short-term excess post-exercise oxygen consumption (EPOC) through an increase in the resting metabolic rate (RMR)

True

27

Facilitates actions of anabolic hormones and stimulates increased secretions of GH and IGF-1

True

28

Hyperthyroidism will impede weight gain, while hyperthyroidism will impede weight loss

True

29

Adrenal Hormones
Important to exercise as they are specifically designed to manage stress

True

30

Adrenal Hormones
Regulate electrolytes and the production of cortisol and androgens

True

31

Aldosterone

Regulates ion activity and water balance by reabsorbing or excreting sodium

32

Cortisol actions during exercise or stress:

Inhibits CHO uptake and oxidation in the body by acting as an insulin antagonist, released during high psychological stress, leading to significant body protein breakdown, sustained, high-level release suppresses immune function and promotes visceral fat storage in the abdominal area

33

Epinephrine & norepinephrine functions:

Promote heart rate and blood pressure changes through neural stimulation, enhance enzyme systems of working tissue, promote vasodilation, and augment the release of anabolic hormones

34

Release of catecholamines is based on acute stress experienced by the body

True

35

Catecholamines

Any naturally occurring amine that functions as a neurotransmitter or hormone; includes dopamine, norepinephrine, and epinephrine

36

Prolonged stress leads to reduced return and detrimental outcomes

True

37

Training needs to be dose-appropriate and balanced with other perceived stresses to ensure positive adaptive outcomes

True

38

The type and intensity of training dictates the specific response by both working tissue and endocrine glands that mediate adaptive changes

True

39

Positive adaption process that occurs in muscle protein is called muscle remodeling

True

40

Muscle remodeling

Significant physiological stress elicits disruption and damage to muscle cells, stimulating an inflammatory response, extent of protein remodeling is dependent upon the physiological disruption that occurs, and hormonal interaction of GH, testosterone, IGF, T3, and insulin cause the cells to synthesize new protein structures along the sarcomere

41

Each type of stress promotes specific communication related to how the body should manage the internal environment (during and after an event such as an exercise bout)

True

42

Neural patterns activate hormonal patterns that shape the adaptive response to training

True

43

Outcomes are based upon exercise selection, intensity, rest interval, and duration

True

44

Strength training uses heavy loads, near-maximal rest periods (2-5 min) and sets with

True

45

Strength training promotes an increase in anabolic hormones, however, due to the full recovery allowed by the rest periods and the short-term application of training stimulus, limited hypertrophic effects are elicited

True

46

Heavy, cross-joint lifts (e.g., deadlift) have the most dramatic effect on circulating testosterone levels

True

47

Hypertrophy

Increase in the size of an organ due to an increase in cell size; most commonly seen In muscle that has been actively stimulated

48

Body building is a training stress utilizing the following specific components for an exercise bout:

High volume (3-4 sets per exercise)
Moderately heavy resistance (70-85% of 1RM)
Longer durations (8-12 repetitions)
Shorter rest periods - less than one minute

49

Significant simultaneous production of lactic acid and cortisol in response to high intensity, extended time-under-tension exercise stimulates greater GH release and subsequent IGF-1 release for anabolic effects.

True

50

Common errors in body building include:

Utilizing load that are too tight, volume is too low, and rest periods between sets and exercise are too long

51

Endurance training promotes a different hormonal response than resistance training

True

52

Hormone activity is sensitive to variations of intensity

True

53

High-intensity training (particularly above lactate threshold) provides a greater release of GH

True

54

Testosterone is suppressed during high-intensity aerobic activities

True

55

Insulin sensitivity is increased

True

56

Glucagon levels increase slightly with prolonged exercise

True

57

Cortisol release is relatively low but increases with prolonged durations

True

58

Limited anabolic hormone activity occurs, resulting in minimal increases in lean mass

True

59

A reduction in lean mass may occur with high-volume training due to catabolic effects

True

60

Improved lipid utilization is experienced with high-volume training

True