2. Growth and Development Flashcards Preview

BDS2 CDS Paediatric Dentistry > 2. Growth and Development > Flashcards

Flashcards in 2. Growth and Development Deck (41):
1

Jaw relationship at birth (3)

Gum pads widely separated anteriorly
Tongue resting on lower gum pad
Tongue in contact with lower lip

2

Characteristics of primary dentition (5)

Incisors upright
Incisors are spaced
Teeth are smaller
Reduced overjet
Whiter in colour than permanent teeth

3

Psychology of child development includes (5)

Motor
Cognitive
Perceptual
Language
Social

4

Features of motor development (3)

Predictability of early ‘motor milestones’ suggests that it must be genetically programmed
Completed in infancy – changes following the ability to walk are refinements
Hand-eye coordination gradually becomes more precise and elaborate with increasing experience

5

Stages of cognitive development (4)

Sensorimotor
Pre-operational thought
Concrete operations
Formal operations

6

Features of sensorimotor development (2)

Until about 2 years old
Prime object is object permanence

7

Features of pre-operational though development (4)

2-7 years
Allows child to predict outcomes of behaviour
Facilitated by language development
Egocentric
Unable to understand why areas and volumes remain unchanged even though shape and position may change

8

Features of concrete operations (4)

7-11 years
Apply logic
Able to see others perspective
Still difficult to think in an abstract manner

9

Features of formal operations (2)

From 11 years
Logical abstract thinking, therefore different possibilities for an action can be considered

10

Features of perceptual development (3)

It is difficult to know what babies are experience perceptually
Compared to an adult, a child of 6 will cover less of an object, take in less information and become fixated on details
Selective attention by 7 years

11

Features of language development (2)

A lack of appropriate stimulation will retard/inhibit a child’s learning, particularly language
A child needs language to be able to think about what he/she sees and hears

12

Features of language development of a one year old (3)

Understands - vocabulary of 20 words, simple phrases, relates objects to words
Uses - 2-3 words, repetitive babble, tuneful jargon
Sounds - B, D, M

13

Features of language development of a two year old (3)

Understands - simple commands, questions, joins in action songs
Uses - vocabulary of 100 words, puts two words together, echolalia
Sounds - P, T, K, G, N

14

Features of language development of a three year old (3)

Understands - prepositions (on, under, etc.), functions of object, simple conversations
Uses - 4-word sentences, what, who, where, relates experiences
Sounds - F, S, L

15

Features of language development of a four year old (3)

Understands - colours, numbers, tenses, complex instructions
Uses - long grammatical sentences, relates stories
Sounds - V, Z, Ch, J

16

Types of disorders of speech and language (9)

Learning difficulties
Cerebral palsy
Autism
Delayed speech and language development
Head injury
Acquired neurological disorders
Non-fluency
Dysphonia
Craniofacial disorders

17

Features of normal speech (2)

Requires competent airway and articulators
Classified by place, manner and voice

18

Features of cleft type speech (3)

Resonance
Articulation
Nasal emission

19

Definition of velopharyngeal incompetence, VPI (2)

Failure of the body's ability to temporarily close the communication between the nasal cavity and the mouth
Due an anatomic dysfunction of the soft palate or of the lateral or posterior wall of the pharynx

20

Types of cleft treatment (5)

Feeding
Early intervention
Input modelling
Articulation therapy
Communication support

21

Features of secondary cleft surgery (5)

Nasal revision
Fistula closure
Pharyngoplasty
Alveolar bone graft
Osteotomy

22

Normal development of feeding skills in an infant pre-40wks (2)

28wks - non-nutritive sucking
34wks - nutritive sucking

23

Normal development of feeding skills in an infant 0-3mths (5)

Normal oral tone
Rhythmic sucking
Primitive reflexes (gag, rooting, suck/swallow)
Semi-reclined feeding position
Liquid diet

24

Normal development of feeding skills in an infant 4-6mths (5)

Head control
More control of suck/swallow
Munching
Move towards semi-solid diet
Start babbling

25

Normal development of feeding skills in an infant 7-9mths (7)

Sitting feeding position
Mashed consistency
Finger food
Upper lip involvement
Chewing and bolus formation
Bite reflex
Mouthing

26

Normal development of feeding skills in an infant 10-12mths (5)

Lumpy food
Sustained bite
Active lip closure
Chewing - lateralisation
Cup drinking

27

Normal development of feeding skills in an infant 24mths

Mature and integrated feeding pattern

28

Effect of the family unit (5)

Behaviour contagion
Well-intended but improper preparation
Discuss dental treatment within hearing of the child
Enhancing the child’s anxiety
Threatening the child with dental treatment

29

Paediatric assessment involves (6)

Pain
Past dental history
Relevant past medical history
Social history
Level of understanding and potential cooperation
Level of anxiety

30

Components of behaviour management (3)

Communication
Education
Interaction

31

Manifestations of anxiety in children (13)

(Related to age sex and social class)
Thumb-sucking
Nose-picking
Nail-biting
Clumsiness
Stuttering
Stomach pain
Need to go to toilet
Headache
Dizziness
Fidgeting
No speech
Clinging to parent
Hiding

32

Paediatric dentistry children influencing factors (6)

Each child’s own psychological make-up
Understanding
Emotional development
Previous adverse dental/medical experience
Attitude and previous experience of family/peer-group
The behaviour of the dentist and wider dental team

33

Components of good dentist-child communication (4)

Improves the information obtained from the patient
Enables the dentist to communicate information to the patient
Increases the likelihood of patient compliance
Decreases patient anxiety

34

Components of communication (3)

Verbal (5%)
Paralinguistic (30%)
Non-verbal (65%)

35

Features of verbal communication (3)

This consists of the actual words the person uses
Try to avoid the use of jargon and specific terms that the patient might not understand
Children are not small adults. The approach and language used with them can be modified to match their abilities and understanding

36

Features of paralinguistic communication (2)

This refers to the tone of voice used by the individual
Loudness has been one aspect of paralinguistic communication that has been investigated in the dental field with children. It was found issuing commands in a loud voice was more effective than using a normal voice

37

Features of non-verbal communication (2)

Includes a range of behaviours and environmental factors which we often interpret without conscious awareness
Facial expression, gaze, gesture, bodily contact, spatial awareness, clothes (especially PPE)

38

Role of dentist in reducing child anxiety (7)

Preventing pain
Being friendly and establishing trust and a rapport
Working quickly
Having a calm manner
Giving moral support
Being re-assuring about pain
Empathy

39

Examples of increasing fear-related behaviours (5)

Ignoring or denying feelings
Inappropriate reassurance
Coercing/coaxing
Humiliating
Losing your patience with the patient

40

Links between pain and anxiety (2)

Anxious subjects are more likely than non-anxious to report pain
This points to the psychological role in pain perception

41

Influences of pain perception (6)

Anxiety
Previous experience
Expectation
Anticipation
Communication
Control