3. Caries Prevention 0-16 Flashcards Preview

BDS2 CDS Paediatric Dentistry > 3. Caries Prevention 0-16 > Flashcards

Flashcards in 3. Caries Prevention 0-16 Deck (26):

Definition of dental caries

A disease of the dental hard tissues caused by the action of micro-organisms, found in plaque, on fermentable CHOs


Impact of caries on pre-school children (4)

Aesthetic problems
Loss of function


Caries risk indicators in children (8)

Oral hygiene
Bacterial exposure
Socioeconomic status
Breast/bottle feeding
Fluoride exposure
Parental smoking
Parental oral health


Components of paediatric caries risk assessment (7)

Clinical evidence
Dietary habits
Social history
Fluoride use
Plaque control
Saliva control
Medical history


Components of paediatric caries prevention protocol (7)

Fluoride varnish
Toothpaste (1000/1450ppmF)
Tooth brushing instruction/OHI
Dietary counselling
Fissure sealants
Sugar free medicines


Features of early childhood caries (3)

Nursing caries
Typically affects upper anteriors and upper/lower molars (as tongue sits over lower molars)
Typically caused by inappropriate use of feeding cups and bottles (prolonged on-demand breastfeeding too)


Prevention incorporates diet, fluoride and oral hygiene, SIGN 83 (13)

Pregnant women should be advised that there is no benefit to the child of taking fluoride supplements during pregnancy (SIGN 83)
The dental team should support and promote breastfeeding
Use of a feeding cup rather than a bottle should be recommended from six months (free-flow spout)
Drinks containing free sugars should never be put in a feeder bottle
Children should not be put to bed with a feeder bottle or cup
Soya milk formula is potentially cariogenic and should only be used when medically indicated (lactose intolerance)
The use of sweetened drinks should not be advocated but where there is a strong suspicion that they are being used: mealtimes only, dilute as much as possible, take through a straw which should be held at the back of the mouth
Food and confectionary containing free sugar should be restricted to mealtimes only
Plain water or milk between meals
Sugar free medicines should be requested where available, where not available doses should be given at mealtimes and never after tooth brushing at night
Cheese is a good high energy food for toddlers, it is non-cariogenic and may actively protect against caries
Sugar free snacks are unlikely to be cariogenic
Confectionary and beverages containing sugar substitutes are preferable to those containing sugar (safe snacks – milk/water, fruit, savoury sandwiches, crackers and cheese, bread sticks, crisps)


Methods of obtaining fluoride (4)

Supplementary self-delivered (drops, tablets, mouthwash)
Professionally delivered (varnishes)


Paediatric toothbrushing instruction (4)

Should be started as soon as the first primary teeth erupt (should be started immediately if neonatal/natal teeth are present and kept)
Children under the age of eight lack the dexterity to brush their own teeth effectively
Young children should have their teeth brushed by an adult before bed and at one other time in the day
Older children who are unable to brush their own teeth effectively should be assisted


Fluoride in toothpaste (4)

Child formulation – 450-600ppm (not recommended in Scotland (Macleans Milk Teeth, Colgate 0-6)
Child formulation – 1000ppm (Aquafresh Milk Teeth, free pastes given out by health visitors/Childsmile programme)
Standard fluoride – 1400-1500ppm (Colgate Total, Aquafresh Little Teeth and Big Teeth)
• Enhanced fluoride – 2600ppm-5000ppm (Duraphat – 2800ppm only recommended for those over ten who require it; 5000ppm should not be given to a child under sixteen)


Toothpaste strength recommendation (4)

First tooth eruption until three years old - 1000ppmF- for standard risk kids
4-16 years old - 1000-1500ppmF- for standard risk kids
High risk children under ten years old - 1500ppmF-
High risk aged ten and over - 2800ppmF-


F concentration and amount of paste for kids (2)

Smear of paste (approx. 0.1ml) for children under 3
Pea-sized amount (approx. 0.25ml) for children aged 3 and over


Tooth brushing practice (3)

Spit out excess, do not rinse
Manual or powered toothbrushes are both effective when using a fluoride toothpaste
Use a small headed manual brush


Important information required for suspected fluoride toxicity (3)

Weight of child
Amount swallowed
Concentration of F in toothpaste


Management of fluoride toxicity (3)

<5mg/kg - oral Ca, observe for a few hrs
5-15mg/kg - oral Ca, admit to hospital
>15mg/kg - immediate hospital, cardiac monitoring, life support, IV Ca gluconate


Features of fluoride mouthwash for children (2)

Not recommended for children under the age of six
Even over six, the dentist must assess the child’s ability to properly expectorate


Types of professionally applied fluorides (2)

APF gels


Components of practice-based prevention (2)

Topical fluoride varnish should be applied to the dentition at least twice yearly for pre-school children assessed as being at increased risk of caries
Floss between contact areas


Components of community-based prevention (2)

Health education
Health promotion


Definition of health education

Process that results in individuals or groups having increased knowledge relating to health


Features of dental health education

Dental/dietary health education in isolation should not be undertaken as a community-based prevention approach, as studies have shown it does not work. It should form an overall prevention plan for individual patients


Definition of health promotion

Supporting individuals in translating their health knowledge into positive behaviours and lifestyles


Features of health promotion

Health promotion activities should be directed at a wide variety of areas likely to impact on health


Functions of oral health promotion programmes (4)

Aim to reduce the risk of early childhood caries should be available for parents during pregnancy and postnatal
For young children should be initiated before the age of three years
Should address environmental, public and social policy changes in order to support behaviour change
Help of lay persons and non-dental health professionals


Components of prevention 0-5 (8)

Clinical examination
Bitewing radiographs
Fibre-optic trans-illumination
Temporary tooth separation
Air abrasion
CO2 laser
Electric caries meter


Radiographs and risk categories for frequency (2)

Every 6mths - high risk kids
Every 12-18mths - low risk kids