Flashcards in 2 Medulla Deck (45):
What is the only part of the CNS that is essential for life?
What features demarcate the transition from spinal cord to medulla?
1. spinal trigeminal tract and nucleus
2. Pyramid Decussations
What blends together to form the spinal nucleus of trigeminal nerve?
substantia gelatinosa, posteromarginal nucleus, nucleus proprius
What does the spinal nucleus of trigeminal nerve receive?
pain and temp from the face
What does Lissauer's tract become in the medulla? Fiber size? where are fibers derived?
spinal trigeminal tract
Asigma and C
T-F---dorsal columns end in the caudal medulla?
What forms the inferior cerebellar peduncle?
dorsal spinocerebellar tract
Where is neuron 2 nucleus of the sensory ganglia from pain, temp, simple touch, from face, oral cavity and ear located?
Spinal trigeminal nucleus
Does the spinal trigeminal tract go travel caudally or rostrally?
caudal to the spinal trigeminal nucleus
Spinal trigeminal nucleus gives axons that decussate and ascend as what?
ventral trigeminothalamic tract
Where does the ventral trigeminothalamic tract terminate?
Thalamus--ventral posterior medial nucleus (VPM)
Where does pain from teeth specifically terminate in the spinal trigeminal nucleus?
middle (inter polar)
T-F- - periorbital areas of CNV division are found caudally in the spinal nucleus?
False---most rostrally---ear and scalp are most caudal
Where do the neuron 2 fibers from cuneate and gracile fascicle cross? what are they called?
internal arcuate fibers--->medial lemniscus
Where does the accessory cuneate nucleus send axons to?
cerebellum in the cuneo-cerebellar tract
What does the dorsal spinocerebellar tract become?
inferior cerebellar peduncle
What is the dorsal spinocerebellar tract joined by in the medulla?
olivo-cerebellar fibers from the inferior olivary nucleus
In what orientation to fibers from the hypoglossal nucleus travel in the medulla? where do they emerge?
obliquely down to emerge from pre-olivary sulcus
What does nucleus ambiguous provide motor innervation to?
pharynx, larynx, soft palate, and upper esophagus
(CN IX and CNX)
What nucleus lies beneath the floor of the fourth ventricle and is the source of preganglionic parasympathetic fibers in the sub-diaphragmatic vagus nerve?
dorsal motor nucleus of the vagus (DMX)
What does external part of nucleus ambiguous contain?
cardiomotor pre-ganglionic neurons
1 st order afferents from 7, 9 and 10 enter brainstem and travel in what? and where do they terminate?
solitary tract and terminate in the NTS (nucleus solitarius tractus)
Where does visceral sensor from mucous membranes of the oral cavity, pharynx, larynx, tympanic cavity, auditory tube, thoracic and abdominal viscera, aortic arch and carotid sinus terminate?
CAUDAL portion of the NTS
Taste afferents from the tongue and epiglottis terminate where?
ROSTRAL portion of NTS
T-F---swallowing and nausea/vomiting almost always accompany medulla lesions
activation of the diving reflex leads to what?
-increased peripheral resistance
What is the intermediate neuron of the gag reflex between IX and X?
V- afferent to the spinal nucleus which sends Neuron 2 to nucleus ambiguous which then sends muscle innervation to pharynx
T-f----loss of reflex or asymmetrical movements of the palate do not occur in lateral medullary syndrome
false- they do occur
The vestibular and cochlear nuclei straddle what?
pons and medulla
lesions of medullary vestibular nuclei lead to what?
signs similar to damage of semicircular canals---vertigo, ataxia, nausea
What is the name for a diffuse white matter bundle in the center of the medulla?
central tegmental tract
Medullary lesion of the central segmental tract can lead to what?
Horners--(central tegmental tract constituent is the hypothalami-spinal tract)
What 4 arteries supply almost all of the blood to the medulla?
-anterior spinal artery
-posterior spinal artery
-posterior inferior cerebellar artery
medial medullary syndrome affects what 3 main structures?
pyramids, hypoglossal nucleus, medial lemniscus
medial medullary syndrome to pyramids causes what?
contralateral UMN signs sparing face
medial medullary syndrome of hypoglossal nucleus causes what?
ipsilateral LMN signs deviating to lesion side
medial medullary syndrome of medial lemniscus causes what?
contralateral loss of 2 point discrimination, vibration sense and kinesthesia
Lateral medullary syndrome of nucleus ambiguous causes?
dysphagia, displaced uvula, flaccid vocal fold
Lateral medullary syndrome of spinal nut and tract of V causes?
ipsilateral loss of pain, temp of the face
lateral medullary syndrome of spinothalamic tract leads to what?
contralateral loss of pain and temp
lateral medullary syndrome of the descending sympathetic tract causes?
lateral medullary syndrome of the inferior cerebellar peduncle causes?
lateral medullary syndrome of vestibular nuclei causes?
vertigo and nausea
lateral medullary syndrome of the reticular formation causes?