2 Medulla Flashcards Preview

NEURO 2 Self > 2 Medulla > Flashcards

Flashcards in 2 Medulla Deck (45):
1

What is the only part of the CNS that is essential for life?

Medulla

2

What features demarcate the transition from spinal cord to medulla?

1. spinal trigeminal tract and nucleus
2. Pyramid Decussations

3

What blends together to form the spinal nucleus of trigeminal nerve?

substantia gelatinosa, posteromarginal nucleus, nucleus proprius

4

What does the spinal nucleus of trigeminal nerve receive?

pain and temp from the face

5

What does Lissauer's tract become in the medulla? Fiber size? where are fibers derived?

spinal trigeminal tract
Asigma and C
Trigeminal ganglion

6

T-F---dorsal columns end in the caudal medulla?

True

7

What forms the inferior cerebellar peduncle?

dorsal spinocerebellar tract

8

Where is neuron 2 nucleus of the sensory ganglia from pain, temp, simple touch, from face, oral cavity and ear located?

Spinal trigeminal nucleus

9

Does the spinal trigeminal tract go travel caudally or rostrally?

caudal to the spinal trigeminal nucleus

10

Spinal trigeminal nucleus gives axons that decussate and ascend as what?

ventral trigeminothalamic tract

11

Where does the ventral trigeminothalamic tract terminate?

Thalamus--ventral posterior medial nucleus (VPM)

12

Where does pain from teeth specifically terminate in the spinal trigeminal nucleus?

middle (inter polar)
Rostral (oral)

13

T-F- - periorbital areas of CNV division are found caudally in the spinal nucleus?

False---most rostrally---ear and scalp are most caudal

14

Where do the neuron 2 fibers from cuneate and gracile fascicle cross? what are they called?

medulla
internal arcuate fibers--->medial lemniscus

15

Where does the accessory cuneate nucleus send axons to?

cerebellum in the cuneo-cerebellar tract

16

What does the dorsal spinocerebellar tract become?

inferior cerebellar peduncle

17

What is the dorsal spinocerebellar tract joined by in the medulla?

olivo-cerebellar fibers from the inferior olivary nucleus

18

In what orientation to fibers from the hypoglossal nucleus travel in the medulla? where do they emerge?

obliquely down to emerge from pre-olivary sulcus

19

What does nucleus ambiguous provide motor innervation to?

pharynx, larynx, soft palate, and upper esophagus
(CN IX and CNX)

20

What nucleus lies beneath the floor of the fourth ventricle and is the source of preganglionic parasympathetic fibers in the sub-diaphragmatic vagus nerve?

dorsal motor nucleus of the vagus (DMX)

21

What does external part of nucleus ambiguous contain?

cardiomotor pre-ganglionic neurons

22

1 st order afferents from 7, 9 and 10 enter brainstem and travel in what? and where do they terminate?

solitary tract and terminate in the NTS (nucleus solitarius tractus)

23

Where does visceral sensor from mucous membranes of the oral cavity, pharynx, larynx, tympanic cavity, auditory tube, thoracic and abdominal viscera, aortic arch and carotid sinus terminate?

CAUDAL portion of the NTS

24

Taste afferents from the tongue and epiglottis terminate where?

ROSTRAL portion of NTS

25

T-F---swallowing and nausea/vomiting almost always accompany medulla lesions

true

26

activation of the diving reflex leads to what?

-bradycardia
-increased peripheral resistance
-apnea

27

What is the intermediate neuron of the gag reflex between IX and X?

V- afferent to the spinal nucleus which sends Neuron 2 to nucleus ambiguous which then sends muscle innervation to pharynx

28

T-f----loss of reflex or asymmetrical movements of the palate do not occur in lateral medullary syndrome

false- they do occur

29

The vestibular and cochlear nuclei straddle what?

pons and medulla

30

lesions of medullary vestibular nuclei lead to what?

signs similar to damage of semicircular canals---vertigo, ataxia, nausea

31

What is the name for a diffuse white matter bundle in the center of the medulla?

central tegmental tract

32

Medullary lesion of the central segmental tract can lead to what?

Horners--(central tegmental tract constituent is the hypothalami-spinal tract)

33

What 4 arteries supply almost all of the blood to the medulla?

-anterior spinal artery
-posterior spinal artery
-vertebral artery
-posterior inferior cerebellar artery

34

medial medullary syndrome affects what 3 main structures?

pyramids, hypoglossal nucleus, medial lemniscus

35

medial medullary syndrome to pyramids causes what?

contralateral UMN signs sparing face

36

medial medullary syndrome of hypoglossal nucleus causes what?

ipsilateral LMN signs deviating to lesion side

37

medial medullary syndrome of medial lemniscus causes what?

contralateral loss of 2 point discrimination, vibration sense and kinesthesia

38

Lateral medullary syndrome of nucleus ambiguous causes?

dysphagia, displaced uvula, flaccid vocal fold

39

Lateral medullary syndrome of spinal nut and tract of V causes?

ipsilateral loss of pain, temp of the face

40

lateral medullary syndrome of spinothalamic tract leads to what?

contralateral loss of pain and temp

41

lateral medullary syndrome of the descending sympathetic tract causes?

horners

42

lateral medullary syndrome of the inferior cerebellar peduncle causes?

ipsilateral ataxia

43

lateral medullary syndrome of vestibular nuclei causes?

vertigo and nausea

44

lateral medullary syndrome of the reticular formation causes?

hiccups (chronic)

45

what tells the cerebellum that an inappropriate movement is being performed?

Olive (or so it is believed)