Where do the majority of eye injuries occur?
What are some mechanisms of eye injury?
Blunt force trauma
What must be recorded before examining the eyes of someone with an injury?
How is the eye examined?
Front to back
lids, conjunctiva, cornea, anterior segment, pupils, fundus
What dye is used to examine the eyes?
What colour does it turn under blue light?
1. History is key
2. Visual acuity
What type of fracture can be caused by orbital trauma?
Orbital blowout fracture
What sign is produced on a CT head by an orbital blowout fracture?
Tear drop sign
prolapse of fat into maxillary sinus
Which walls of the orbit are most commonly damaged by orbital blowout fractures?
Which muscle is commonly trapped?
Medial and inferior walls
What sign is caused by inferior rectus entrapment in an orbital blowout fracture?
What symptom does this cause?
Inability to ELEVATE affected eye because muscle is trapped (contracted)
What type of bleeding is caused by blunt force trauma?
What should you be suspicious of in all traumatic eye injuries involving significant force?
What is traumatic uveitis?
Inflammation caused by proteins released by traumatic injury
think also: sympathetic ophthalmia
What is blood in the anterior chamber called?
What does it indicate?
What is pus in the anterior chamber called?
Significant intraocular injury
What is commotio retinae?
What name is given to a bruised retina?
What is a laceration?
Deep cut/tear in surface
Corneal lacerations cause a communication between the outside world and the eye.
What can this cause?
What sign is produced on fluorescein staining?
Seidel test (aqueous fluid passes through communication and dilutes the fluroscein)
In what situation may the pupil become teardrop shaped?
Iris acts like omentum in Crohn's, plugging the injury
What is the Seidel test?
Dilution of fluorescein
Caused by corneal laceration, aqueous fluid passing through communication
What autoimmune disease causes bilateral granulomatous uveitis in response to trauma in one eye?
What may it result in if untreated?
What part of the anterior eye must be examined for foreign bodies?
Underneath upper lids
What will occur if residual metal is left in the cornea?
What medication is usually used for corneal abrasions / foreign bodies?
What are the two benefits of this?
Chloramphenicol drops QDS for a week
Antibacterial and moisturising
What investigation should be done to find intraocular foreign bodies?
(Acids / alkalis) cause more damage to the eye.
Rapidly penetrate, severely burn and cause scarring
Acid burns are self-limiting
Where are stem cells found in the eye?