2: Ocular trauma Flashcards Preview

Ophthalmology Week 2 2017/18 > 2: Ocular trauma > Flashcards

Flashcards in 2: Ocular trauma Deck (38)
Loading flashcards...
1

Where do the majority of eye injuries occur?

At work

2

What are some mechanisms of eye injury?

Blunt force trauma

Penetrating injuries

Burns

3

What must be recorded before examining the eyes of someone with an injury?

Visual acuity

4

How is the eye examined?

Front to back

lids, conjunctiva, cornea, anterior segment, pupils, fundus

5

What dye is used to examine the eyes?

What colour does it turn under blue light?

Fluorscein

green

6

1. History is key

2. Visual acuity

3. Fluorescein

7

What type of fracture can be caused by orbital trauma?

Orbital blowout fracture

8

What sign is produced on a CT head by an orbital blowout fracture?

Tear drop sign

prolapse of fat into maxillary sinus

9

Which walls of the orbit are most commonly damaged by orbital blowout fractures?

Which muscle is commonly trapped?

Medial and inferior walls

Inferior rectus

10

What sign is caused by inferior rectus entrapment in an orbital blowout fracture?

What symptom does this cause?

Inability to ELEVATE affected eye because muscle is trapped (contracted)

Diplopia

11

What type of bleeding is caused by blunt force trauma?

Subconjunctival haemorrhage

12

What should you be suspicious of in all traumatic eye injuries involving significant force?

Globe rupture

13

What is traumatic uveitis?

Inflammation caused by proteins released by traumatic injury

think also: sympathetic ophthalmia

14

What is blood in the anterior chamber called?

What does it indicate?

What is pus in the anterior chamber called?

Hyphaema

Significant intraocular injury

Hypopyon

15

What's this?

Dislocated lens

16

What's this?

Retinal detachment

17

What's this?

Choroid tear

18

What is commotio retinae?

Bruised retina

19

What name is given to a bruised retina?

Commotio retinae

20

What is a laceration?

Deep cut/tear in surface

21

Corneal lacerations cause a communication between the outside world and the eye.

What can this cause?

What sign is produced on fluorescein staining?

Infection

Seidel test (aqueous fluid passes through communication and dilutes the fluroscein)

22

In what situation may the pupil become teardrop shaped?

Corneal laceration

Iris acts like omentum in Crohn's, plugging the injury

23

What is the Seidel test?

Dilution of fluorescein

Caused by corneal laceration, aqueous fluid passing through communication

24

What autoimmune disease causes bilateral granulomatous uveitis in response to trauma in one eye?

What may it result in if untreated?

Sympathetic ophthalmia

Total blindness

25

What part of the anterior eye must be examined for foreign bodies?

Underneath upper lids

eye-e sub-tarsal

26

What will occur if residual metal is left in the cornea?

Rust ring

27

What medication is usually used for corneal abrasions / foreign bodies?

What are the two benefits of this?

Chloramphenicol drops QDS for a week

Antibacterial and moisturising

28

What investigation should be done to find intraocular foreign bodies?

X-ray orbits

29

(Acids / alkalis) cause more damage to the eye.

Why?

Alkalis

Rapidly penetrate, severely burn and cause scarring

Acid burns are self-limiting

30

Where are stem cells found in the eye?

Limbus