What are some causes of red eye?
Acute angle-closure glaucoma
What is the most common cause of red eye?
What helps to defend the eye from infection?
Tear film (lacrimal fluid and mucus via Meibomian glands)
What do tears contain to help defend against infection?
What are symptoms you should ask about in an ophthalmic history?
Pain - grittiness, dryness, headache
Which infection are people with contact lenses particularly prone to?
How is it treated?
amoeba which colonises if you sleep, swim with your contact lenses in
How are the eyes examined?
Front to back
How can you check IOP in an eye examination?
What piece of equipment can also estimate IOP?
Ballot the eyes
like kidneys in GI exam
blows air into the eye
What is blepharitis?
What symptom does blepharitis usually produce?
Dry, gritty eyes
What is the usual causal organism of anterior blepharitis?
What signs does it produce?
Distorted lashes, scaly, inflamed lids
What structure is diseased in posterior blepharitis?
which produce mucus
What does posterior blepharitis look like?
Swollen lump on eyelid
Dried secretions on lashes
What derm problem, common in middle aged women, is posterior blepharitis associated with?
facial flushing, pustules, rhynophyma
How is blepharitis treated?
Proper lid hygiene
Oral antibiotics for Staph e.g doxycycline
What causes conjunctivitis?
What type of conjunctivitis does chlamydia cause?
What else must be screened for?
Does conjunctivitis affect vision?
What are the symptoms of conjunctivitis?
Discharge (watery for viral, pus in bacterial)
Itch in ALLERGIC conjunctivitis
How is conjunctivitis treated?
What indicates chlamydial conjunctivitis over viral or other bacterial causes?
Follicles on posterior eyelids
What indicates viral conjunctivitis over other types?
Enlarged pre-auricular nodes
What indicates allergic conjunctivitis over other causes?
Papillae on posterior eyelids
History of atopy
What is chemosis?
What would you see in a viral conjunctivitis caused by
a) Herpes simplex
b) Herpes zoster?
a) Cold sores (papules)
b) Dermatomal rash
If a patient has vertical scratches on their cornea, where should you examine?
Posterior eyelids for foreign bodies
"ice rink cornea"
What are the layers of the cornea?
What stain can be used to identify corneal lesions?
What is a sign of significant corneal disease?
What microbes can cause corneal ulcers (i.e a keratitis)?
Viral (dendritic ulcers)
Acanthamoeba (contact lenses)