7: Red eye Flashcards Preview

Ophthalmology Week 2 2017/18 > 7: Red eye > Flashcards

Flashcards in 7: Red eye Deck (58)
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1

What are some causes of red eye?

Eye infections

Haemorrhage

Acute angle-closure glaucoma

2

What is the most common cause of red eye?

Conjunctivitis

3

What helps to defend the eye from infection?

Structures

Tear film (lacrimal fluid and mucus via Meibomian glands)

4

What do tears contain to help defend against infection?

Lysozymes

Immunoglobulins

Complement

5

What are symptoms you should ask about in an ophthalmic history?

Pain - grittiness, dryness, headache

Itch

Discharge

Photophobia

Visual loss

6

Which infection are people with contact lenses particularly prone to?

How is it treated?

Acanthaemoba

amoeba which colonises if you sleep, swim with your contact lenses in

Chlorhexidine

7

How are the eyes examined?

Front to back

8

How can you check IOP in an eye examination?

What piece of equipment can also estimate IOP?

Ballot the eyes

like kidneys in GI exam

Tonometer

blows air into the eye

9

What is blepharitis?

Inflamed eyelids

10

What symptom does blepharitis usually produce?

Dry, gritty eyes

11

What is the usual causal organism of anterior blepharitis?

What signs does it produce?

Staph. aureus

Distorted lashes, scaly, inflamed lids

12

What structure is diseased in posterior blepharitis?

Meibomian glands 

which produce mucus

13

What does posterior blepharitis look like?

Swollen lump on eyelid

Dried secretions on lashes

14

What derm problem, common in middle aged women, is posterior blepharitis associated with?

Acne rosacea

facial flushing, pustules, rhynophyma

15

How is blepharitis treated?

Proper lid hygiene

Tear drops

Oral antibiotics for Staph e.g doxycycline

16

What causes conjunctivitis?

Bacteria

Viruses

Allergy

17

What type of conjunctivitis does chlamydia cause?

What else must be screened for?

Trachoma

STIs

18

Does conjunctivitis affect vision?

No

19

What are the symptoms of conjunctivitis?

Red eye

Gritty

Discharge (watery for viral, pus in bacterial)

Itch in ALLERGIC conjunctivitis

20

How is conjunctivitis treated?

Antibiotics

Antivirals

Anti-inflammatories

21

What indicates chlamydial conjunctivitis over viral or other bacterial causes?

Follicles on posterior eyelids

22

What indicates viral conjunctivitis over other types?

Pink eye

Watery discharge

Enlarged pre-auricular nodes

23

What indicates allergic conjunctivitis over other causes?

Itchy eye

Papillae on posterior eyelids

Chemosis

History of atopy

24

What is chemosis?

Conjunctival oedema

25

What would you see in a viral conjunctivitis caused by

a) Herpes simplex

b) Herpes zoster?

a) Cold sores (papules)

b) Dermatomal rash

26

If a patient has vertical scratches on their cornea, where should you examine?

Posterior eyelids for foreign bodies

"ice rink cornea"

27

What are the layers of the cornea?

Epithelium (hydrophobic)

Stroma (hydrophilic)

Endothelium (hydrophobic)

28

What stain can be used to identify corneal lesions?

Fluorescein

29

What is a sign of significant corneal disease?

Vascularisation

30

What microbes can cause corneal ulcers (i.e a keratitis)?

Viral (dendritic ulcers)

Fungal (rare)

Bacterial (hypopyon)

Acanthamoeba (contact lenses)