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Flashcards in 2: Period Table Deck (17):
1

periodic law

chemical and physical properties of the elements are dependent, in a periodic way, upon their atomic numbers

2

representative elements

A elements which have valence electrons in orbitals of either s or p subshells

3

non-representative elements

B elements which include transition elements and lanthanide and actinide series

  • valence electrons in s and d subshells

4

metals

  • lustrous
  • malleable
  • ductile
  • high melting points and densities
  • low electronegativity... easily give up electrons
  • large atomic radius, small ionic radius, low IE, low EA, low effective nuclear charge

5

nonmetals

  • high IE, EA, electronegativities
  • small atomic radii, large ionic radii
  • inability of nonmetals to easily give upelectrons
  • upper right of periodic table 

6

metals, nonmetals, and metalloids on the periodic table

A image thumb
7

effective nuclear charge 

electrostatic attraction between the valence shell electrons and the nucleus... a measure of the net positive charge experienced by the outermost electrons

  • increases from left to right within the same period

*somewhat mitigated by nonvalence electrons that reside closer to the nucleus

8

ionization energy (IE)

energy required to remove an electron from a gaseous species... endothermic process 

9

electron affinity

energy dissipated by a gaseous species when it gains an electron... exothermic 

*opposite of ionization energy

10

electronegativity

measure of the attractive force that an atom will exert on an electron in a chemical bond

11

alkali metals

  • very low Zeff because only 1 loosely bound electron in their outermost shells --> lagest atomic radii
  • low IE, low electron affinities, low electronegativities 
  • easily loose an electron to form univalent cations 
  • most readily react with halogens 

12

alkaline earth metals

  • valence electrons easily removed to form divalent cations

13

halogens

highly reactive nonmetals with seven valence electrons... desperate to complete octets by gaining one additional electron

  • very high electronegativities and electron affinities
  • especially reactive toward alkali and alkaline earth metals

14

chalgogens

group 6A or group 16

  • very important for biologica functions
    • ie. Oxygen
  • nonmetals and metalloids
  • 6 valence electrons
  • small atomic radii and large ionic radii

15

noble gases

inert gases because they have minimal chemical reactivity due to their filled valence shells...

  • high IE with little or no tendency to gain or loose electrons 
  • low boiling points and exist as gases at room temperature

16

transition elements

  • metals with low electron affinities and low electronegativites
  • good conductors due to loosely held electrons in the d-orbitals of their valence shells
  • various positive oxidation states so form many different ionic compounds
    • either hydration complexes or with nonmetals

17

subtraction frequencies

the reflected colors of light that are brain mises and leads us to percieve the complementary color of the frequency that was...