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Flashcards in 2: Period Table Deck (17):

periodic law

chemical and physical properties of the elements are dependent, in a periodic way, upon their atomic numbers


representative elements

A elements which have valence electrons in orbitals of either s or p subshells


non-representative elements

B elements which include transition elements and lanthanide and actinide series

  • valence electrons in s and d subshells



  • lustrous
  • malleable
  • ductile
  • high melting points and densities
  • low electronegativity... easily give up electrons
  • large atomic radius, small ionic radius, low IE, low EA, low effective nuclear charge



  • high IE, EA, electronegativities
  • small atomic radii, large ionic radii
  • inability of nonmetals to easily give upelectrons
  • upper right of periodic table 


metals, nonmetals, and metalloids on the periodic table

A image thumb

effective nuclear charge 

electrostatic attraction between the valence shell electrons and the nucleus... a measure of the net positive charge experienced by the outermost electrons

  • increases from left to right within the same period

*somewhat mitigated by nonvalence electrons that reside closer to the nucleus


ionization energy (IE)

energy required to remove an electron from a gaseous species... endothermic process 


electron affinity

energy dissipated by a gaseous species when it gains an electron... exothermic 

*opposite of ionization energy



measure of the attractive force that an atom will exert on an electron in a chemical bond


alkali metals

  • very low Zeff because only 1 loosely bound electron in their outermost shells --> lagest atomic radii
  • low IE, low electron affinities, low electronegativities 
  • easily loose an electron to form univalent cations 
  • most readily react with halogens 


alkaline earth metals

  • valence electrons easily removed to form divalent cations



highly reactive nonmetals with seven valence electrons... desperate to complete octets by gaining one additional electron

  • very high electronegativities and electron affinities
  • especially reactive toward alkali and alkaline earth metals



group 6A or group 16

  • very important for biologica functions
    • ie. Oxygen
  • nonmetals and metalloids
  • 6 valence electrons
  • small atomic radii and large ionic radii


noble gases

inert gases because they have minimal chemical reactivity due to their filled valence shells...

  • high IE with little or no tendency to gain or loose electrons 
  • low boiling points and exist as gases at room temperature


transition elements

  • metals with low electron affinities and low electronegativites
  • good conductors due to loosely held electrons in the d-orbitals of their valence shells
  • various positive oxidation states so form many different ionic compounds
    • either hydration complexes or with nonmetals


subtraction frequencies

the reflected colors of light that are brain mises and leads us to percieve the complementary color of the frequency that was...