3: Bonding and Chemical Interactions Flashcards Preview

MCAT Chem > 3: Bonding and Chemical Interactions > Flashcards

Flashcards in 3: Bonding and Chemical Interactions Deck (15):
1

octet rule

desire of all atoms to achieve noble gas conifguration

2

incomplete octet

hydrogen (2), helium (2), Lithium (2), Beryllium (4), Boron (6)

3

expanded octet

period 3+

4

odd number electrons

any molecule with an odd number of valence electrons... ex. NO has 11 valence

5

ionic bonding

1+ electrons from an atom with low ionization energy (metal) transferred to an atom of high electron affinity (nonmetal)

  • electrostatic attraction between opposite charges holds ions togetherr
    • creates crystal lattice stucture

6

covalent bonding

electron pair is shared between 2 atoms (nonmetals) that have relatively similar values of electronegativity

  • can be nonpolar or polar depending on difference in electronegativity

7

coordinate covalent

both shared lectrons are contributed by only one of the 2 atoms

  • lone pair of one atom attacked another atom with an unhybridized p-orbital to form a bond...

8

characteristics of an ionic bond

  • high melting and boiling points because strength of electrostatic force between ionic constituents
  • dissolve readily in water and other polar oslvents 
  • good conductors of electricity
  • crystalline lattice in solid state consiting of repeating positive and negative ions to maximize attractive forces and minimize repulsive forces

9

bond order

number of shared electron pairs between 2 atoms

10

bond length

 average distance between 2 nuclei of an atom

11

bond energy

enegy required to break a bond by separating its components into their isolate, gasous atomic states

12

naturally occuring diatomic elements

H2, N2, O2, F2, Cl2, Br2, I2

  • 7 of them and form number 7 on periodic table

13

range of electronegativities for bonds

0-0.5: nonpolar

0.5-1.7: polar

1.7+: ionic

 

14

dipole moment

measure of seperation of positive and negative chargers

p=qd

(q=magnitdue, d=displacement vector separating partial charges)

15

formal charge

difference between number of electrons assigned to an atom in a Lewis structure and number of electrons normally found in that atom's valence shell 

FC=V-#nonbonding-1/2#bonding