What type of pain is seen in kidney disease?
What are some urinary symptoms of kidney disease?
What may be detected in the urine?
Blood - haematuria
(Myoglobin - same colour, sign of rhabdomyolysis)
Protein - proteinuria
Urea - uraemia, sign of serious disease
Glucose - sign of diabetes
Ketones - signs of DKA
What is a common cardiovascular presentation of kidney disease?
Kidney disease can be ___ or ___.
secondary (as in systemic disease)
Kidney disease can present ___ or ___.
What symptoms are produced by the failure of the kidneys to control fluid balance?
What signs are produced by the failure of the kidneys to control acid base balance?
What types of disease are caused by the failure of the kidney to metabolise Vitamin D?
What is the active form of Vitamin D called?
Calcification of vessels (e.g digital arteries, renal arteries, aorta...)
What hormone, produced by the kidneys, causes anaemia if it is deficient?
What causes proteinuria?
Loss of barrier to proteins of kidneys
What is a vital sign which should always be checked in people with renal disease?
What investigation analyses the urine of people with suspected kidney disease?
What are some systemic diseases which can cause nephropathy?
Connective tissue diseases e.g SLE
CVD (e.g renal artery stenosis)
What drugs can cause kidney disease?
Anti-hypertensives (ACEIs, ARBs, diuretics)
Antibiotics (gentamicin, trimethoprim, penicillins)
What substances, used in MRI and CT scans, can cause nephropathy?
What does trimethoprim cause, mimicking kidney disease?
What should always be asked about in a drug history?
What acute arthropathy can be caused by chronic kidney disease?
Above which BP is someone hypertensive?
140 / 90 mmHg
People with chronic kidney disease must maintain good control of what?
What type of hypertension can kidney disease cause?
What is it associated with?
Accelerated hypertension (diastolic > 120)
Papilloedema, organ failure
___ hypertension due to kidney disease must be treated urgently.
What nail sign is seen in chronic kidney disease?
What sign is seen in the skin in gout?
What nail sign may be seen in patients with haematuria and is also seen in infective endocarditis and vasculitis?
What type of vasculitis is seen on the extensor surfaces of the thighs and buttocks?
What symptoms is it associated with?
Abdominal pain, joint pain (is the big one according to peer tutor)
What is a significant indicator of renal disease on urinalysis?
What might suggest a UTI on urinalysis?
Elevated white blood cells
What is the gold standard for classifying proteinuria?
24h urine collection