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Renal Week 2 2017/18 > 2: Presentation of renal disease > Flashcards

Flashcards in 2: Presentation of renal disease Deck (46)
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1

What type of pain is seen in kidney disease?

Loin pain

posterior flanks

2

What are some urinary symptoms of kidney disease?

Oiligouria

Polyuria

Haematuria

3

What may be detected in the urine?

Blood - haematuria

(Myoglobin - same colour, sign of rhabdomyolysis)

Protein - proteinuria

Urea - uraemia, sign of serious disease

Glucose - sign of diabetes

Ketones - signs of DKA

4

What is a common cardiovascular presentation of kidney disease?

Hypertension

5

Kidney disease can be ___ or ___.

primary

secondary (as in systemic disease)

6

Kidney disease can present ___ or ___.

acutely

chronic

7

What symptoms are produced by the failure of the kidneys to control fluid balance?

Fluid retention

Oedema

8

What signs are produced by the failure of the kidneys to control acid base balance?

Metabolic acidosis

Kussmaul breathing

9

What types of disease are caused by the failure of the kidney to metabolise Vitamin D?

What is the active form of Vitamin D called?

Bone disease

Calcification of vessels (e.g digital arteries, renal arteries, aorta...)

Calcitriol

10

What hormone, produced by the kidneys, causes anaemia if it is deficient?

Erythropoeitin

11

What causes proteinuria?

Loss of barrier to proteins of kidneys

12

What is a vital sign which should always be checked in people with renal disease?

BP

13

What investigation analyses the urine of people with suspected kidney disease?

Urinalysis

14

What are some systemic diseases which can cause nephropathy?

Diabetes (complications)

Connective tissue diseases e.g SLE

Vasculitis

CVD (e.g renal artery stenosis)

15

What drugs can cause kidney disease?

Anti-hypertensives (ACEIs, ARBs, diuretics)

NSAIDs

Antibiotics (gentamicin, trimethoprim, penicillins)

PPIs

16

What substances, used in MRI and CT scans, can cause nephropathy?

Contrast

17

What does trimethoprim cause, mimicking kidney disease?

Raised creatinine

18

What should always be asked about in a drug history?

OTC drugs

Herbal remedies

19

What acute arthropathy can be caused by chronic kidney disease?

Gout

20

Above which BP is someone hypertensive?

140 / 90 mmHg

21

People with chronic kidney disease must maintain good control of what?

BP

22

What type of hypertension can kidney disease cause?

What is it associated with?

Accelerated hypertension (diastolic > 120)

Papilloedema, organ failure

23

___ hypertension due to kidney disease must be treated urgently.

Accelerated

24

What nail sign is seen in chronic kidney disease?

Leukonychia

25

What sign is seen in the skin in gout?

Tophi

26

What nail sign may be seen in patients with haematuria and is also seen in infective endocarditis and vasculitis?

Splinter haemorrhages

27

What type of vasculitis is seen on the extensor surfaces of the thighs and buttocks?

What symptoms is it associated with?

Henoch-Schonlein purpura

Abdominal pain, joint pain (is the big one according to peer tutor)

28

What is a significant indicator of renal disease on urinalysis?

Proteinuria

29

What might suggest a UTI on urinalysis?

Elevated white blood cells

30

What is the gold standard for classifying proteinuria?

24h urine collection