2-Pruritus and Alopecia Flashcards Preview

Mechanisms of Disease > 2-Pruritus and Alopecia > Flashcards

Flashcards in 2-Pruritus and Alopecia Deck (42):
0

An unpleasant sensation stimulating the desire to itch is known as what?

Pruritus/itch

1

Itch receptors are superficial, deep or both?

Superficial

2

Pruritoreceptors arise only from where?

Skin

3

Which axons mediate the sensation of pain or itch?

Unmyelinated axons (C fibers)

4

Where are 2 locations that cell bodies for itch are located?

- Dorsal root ganglia of spinal nerves
- Trigeminal (Gasserian) ganglion of CN V

5

Where are the spinothalamic-tract neurons that receive incoming action potentials and transmit them to the brain located?

Dorsal horn

6

Where is a possible location in the brain that may process itch?

Primary somatosensory cortex

7

What other type of neurons do itch neurons intersect or intercommunicate with?

Pain neurons

8

What often inhibits itch?

Pain

9

What type of drugs can cause pruritus?

Opioid pain-relievers

10

What is something that can modulate itch perception?

Noxious temperature changes, both cold and hot.

11

What is released by mast cells that can cause pruritus?

Histamine

12

What are 7 possible chemical causes of pruritus?

- Chemical mediators: cytokines-IL-2, TNF-alpha
- Tryptase (found in mast cells)
- Opioids
- Eicosanoids
- Growth factors
- Prostaglandins
- Heparin

13

What are 4 possible conditions pruritus can result from?

- Skin disease
- Systemic disease
- Neuropathic disease
- Psychogenic disease

14

What are 6 possible clinical signs of pruritus that owners can see?

- Biting
- Licking
- Chewing
- Scratching
- Gnawing
- Rubbing

15

What are 3 clinical signs vets can see?

- Alopecia (hair loss)
- Erythema (abnormal redness of skin)
- Excoriations (skin removal)

16

What can give clues to the etiology of pruritus?

Location of the body

17

What are 4 follow-up signs that can be seen with pruritus by the vet?

- More alopecia
- Lichenification (leathery hardening of skin)
- Hyperpigmentation
- Seborrhea (excessive/abnormal discharge from sebaceous glands)

18

What are 9 possible trigger factors for pruritus?

- Allergens
- Bacteria
- Yeast
- Food
- Irritant
- Psyche
- Temperature
- Humidity
- Hormones

19

What is the point under which patients can tolerate a certain load of sensation or pruritic stimuli without becoming itchy?

Threshold

20

What can be seen when multiple stimuli are present at the same time and exceed the threshold of pruritus?

Summation effect

21

T/F: Threshold varies among individuals.

True

22

What are 4 possible causes of allergy induced pruritus in the dog?

- Flea allergy
- Atopic dermatitis
- Cutaneous adverse food reaction
- Insect bite hypersensitivity/contact dermatitis

23

What are 5 possible ectoparasite causes of pruritus in the dog?

- Sarcoptes
- Demodex
- Cheyletiella
- Lice
- Chiggers

24

What are 3 possible infectious causes of pruritus in the dog?

- Pyoderma
- Yeast
- Dermatophytes

25

Caudal dorsum indicates which cause?

Flea allergy

26

Elbows and ears indicate which cause?

Sarcoptic mange

27

Feet licking and chewing indicate what 2 possible cause?

- Food allergy
- Atopy (atopic dermatitis)

28

What are 3 possible causes of pruritus that can be seasonal?

- Flea allergy
- Atopy
- Insect allergy

29

What are 6 possible causes of pruritus that are not seasonal?

- Scabies
- Food allergy
- Flea allergy
- Atopy
- Secondary infections
- Demodex

30

What are 2 possible causes of pruritus that can be both seasonal and non-seasonal?

- Flea allergy
- Atopy

31

What is the scale used to grade pruritus?

1-10

32

What are 3 diseases that cause the most severe pruritus (10/10)?

- Scabies
- Flea allergy
- Food allergy

33

Pruritus comes before the lesion with which 2 causes?

- Allergies
- Scabies

34

Lesions show up before the pruritus in what 3 causes?

- Demodex
- Dermatophytes
- Pyoderma

35

Is feline pruritus the same as canine pruritus?

No

36

Is body localization with feline pruritus as distinctive as canine pruritus?

No

37

What are 3 forms of skin lesions seen with feline pruritus?

- Bilaterally symmetrical hair loss with normal skin (non-inflammatory)
- Miliary dermatitis
- Eosinophilic granuloma complex

38

What 3 clinical signs are rarely seen with cats?

- Excoriation
- Lichenification
- Hyperpigmentation

39

What are 3 allergy causes of pruritus in cats?

- Flea allergy
- Atopy
- Food allergy

40

What are 5 possible ectoparasite causes of pruritus in cats?

- Notoedres
- Demodex gatoi
- Cheyletiella
- Ectopic ear mites
- Fur mite

41

What are 3 possible infectious causes of pruritus in cats?

- Pyoderma (rare)
- Yeast
- Dermatophytes