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Mechanisms of Disease > Dehydration > Flashcards

Flashcards in Dehydration Deck (18):

Fluid loss from intracellular and/or interstitial spaces, occasionally the vascular space resulting in a loss of total body water is called what?



What are 5 possible causes of dehydration?

- Inadequate water intake
- Excessive fluid losses from vomiting
- Diarrhea
- Polyuria without compensatory polydipsia
- Peripheral edema


What are 3 clinical signs of dehydration?

- Decreased skin turgor
- Tacky or dry mucous membranes
- Sunken eyes


Dehydration is measured on a subjective grading scale based on what percentages?
In what percentage range are clinical signs of volume depletion (shock) such as increased CRT and pale gums seen?

- 5-15%
- 10-12%


What are the 4 categories of dehydration and their corresponding percentages?

- Subclinical (<5%)
- Mild (5-7% = 7%)
- Moderate (8-11% = 10%)
- Severe (12-15% = 13%)


Are there any clinical signs for subclinical dehydration?



What are 2 classic clinical signs of mild dehydration?

- Subtle loss of skin elasticity
- Tacky mucous membranes


What are 4 classic clinical signs of moderate dehydration?

- Prolonged skin tent
- Tacky mucous membranes
- Signs of volume depletion appear
- Prolonged capillary refill time (CRT > 2 sec)


What are 6 classic clinical signs of severe dehydration?

- Skin tent stands in place
- Tacky mucous membranes
- Sunken eyes
- CRT > 2 sec
- Depressed
- Overt signs of shock (tachycardia, poor pulse)


What is the difference between dehydration and shock?

- Dehydration: fluid loss from intracellular and/or interstitial space; sometimes vascular space if severe dehydration.
- Hypovolemic shock: fluid loss from vascular space; results in inadequate oxygen deliver to tissues.


What are 3 factors to know when calculating a fluid plan to combat dehydration?

- Dehydration deficit
- Daily maintenance
- Ongoing fluid losses


What does the fluid deficit in liters equal?
Give an example.

- Fluid deficit in liters = % dehydration x current body weight in kg
- 10% dehydration x 10 kg = 1 liter needed


What is the normal daily maintenance range?
What end are dogs vs cats?

- 40-60 mL/kg/day
- Dog high end, cat low end


What do you do to the maintenance rate during fever?

Increase it an extra 15-20 mL/kg/day


An estimate of losses that occur from diarrhea, vomiting, polyuria or "third space" sequestration help to calculate what?

Ongoing fluid losses


What is one way to compensate for ongoing fluid losses?

Double the maintenance dose.


Usually 80-100% of the calculated fluid deficit is replaced during what time frame?

In the first 24 hours.


Often half or more of the dehydration deficit is replaced in what time frame?

Within first 4-6 hours.