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Flashcards in 2 (Relevant Theories and Therapies for Nursing Practice) Deck (12):

An important difference between the developmental theories of Freud and Erikson is

a.) Freud considers the entire life span from birth to old age.

b.) Freud focuses to a greater extent on cognitive development.

c.) Erikson viewed individual growth in terms of social setting.

d.) Erikson focuses on the development of individual moral thinking.

c.) Erikson viewed individual growth in terms of social setting.

Erikson placed greater emphasis on the role of the ego. He also stressed that an individual’s development is influenced by more than the restricted mother-child-father triangle and that culture and society exert significant influence on personality. Sigmund Freud advanced the first theory of personality development and articulated levels of awareness (unconscious, preconscious, conscious) and demonstrated the influence of our unconscious behavior on everyday life, as evidenced by the use of defense mechanisms. Freud identified three psychological processes of personality (id, ego, superego) and described how they operate and develop and articulated one of the first modern developmental theories of personality, based on five psychosexual stages.


Maslow’s theory of humanistic psychology has provided nursing with a framework for

a.) holistic assessment.

b.) determining moral development.

c.) identifying the potential for success in therapy.

d.) conducting nurse-client interpersonal interactions.

a.) holistic assessment.

Central to Maslow’s theory is the assumption that human beings are active rather than passive participants in life, striving for self-actualization. Maslow (1968) focuses on human need fulfillment, which he describes in six incremental stages, beginning with physiological survival needs and culminating in self-transcendent needs (see Figure 2-5 in the text). Although these needs are present in all human beings, the behaviors that emanate from them differ according to a person’s individual biological makeup and environmental factors. This picture is broader and more holistic. Maslow does not address moral development, the potential for success, or interactions directed toward interpersonal relationships.


The premise underlying behavioral therapy is

a.) Behavior is learned and can be modified.

b.) Behavior is a product of unconscious drives.

c.) Motives must change before behavior changes.

d.) Behavior is determined by cognitions; change in cognitions produces new behavior.

a.) Behavior is learned and can be modified.

The premise underlying behavior therapy is that behavior is learned and can be modified. Behaviorists agree that behavior can be changed without insight into the underlying cause.


The nurse planning care for a 14-year-old needs to take into account that the developmental task of adolescence is to

a.) establish trust.

b.) gain autonomy.

c.) achieve identity.

d.) develop a sense of industry.

c.) achieve identity.

According to Erikson, the task of adolescence is to achieve identity rather than to be left in role confusion. A sense of identity is essential to making the transition into adulthood.


Which statement best clarifies the difference between the art and the science of nursing?

a.) The art is the care, compassion, and advocacy component, and the science is the applied knowledge base.

b.) The art is the way in which knowledge is applied, and the science is the technological aspects of caregiving.

c.) The art is the applied technology of practice, and the science is the problem-solving and teaching aspects of caregiving.

d.) The art is the assessing and planning phases of the nursing process, and the science lies in implementing and evaluating.

a.) The art is the care, compassion, and advocacy component, and the science is the applied knowledge base.

This statement reflects the larger thinking of the profession.


Freud believed that individuals cope with anxiety by using

a.) the superego.

b.) defense mechanisms.

c.) security operations.

d.) suppression.

b.) defense mechanisms.

The ego develops defenses or defense mechanisms to ward off anxiety by preventing conscious awareness of threatening feelings.


Which client problem would be most suited to the use of interpersonal therapy?

a.) Disturbed sensory perception

b.) Impaired social interaction

c.) Medication noncompliance

d.) Dysfunctional grieving

d.) Dysfunctional grieving

Interpersonal therapy is considered to be effective in resolving problems of grief, role disputes, role transition, and interpersonal deficit.


You are caring for Alyssa, a 28-year-old patient with bipolar disorder who was admitted in a manic state. According to Maslow’s Hierarchy of Needs theory, which of the following symptoms needs to be the first priority in caring for this patient?

a.) Rapid, pressured speech

b.) Grandiose thoughts

c.) Lack of sleep

d.) Hyperactive behavior

c.) Lack of sleep

Based on Maslow’s theory, physiological needs such as food, water, air, sleep, etc., are the priority and must be taken care of first. The other options are symptoms of mania but not as critical as lack of sleep.


Lucas states, “I will always be alone because nobody could love me.” This is most likely an example of:

a.) emotional consequence.

b.) schema.

c.) actualization.

d.) aversion.

b.) schema.

Schemas are unique assumptions about ourselves, according to Beck’s theory.

This statement is an example of a negative schema. Emotional consequence is the end result of negative thinking process, as described by Ellis.

Actualization is a level of Maslow’s Hierarchy of Needs. Aversion is a therapy characterized by punishment. 


You and Jack are two of the nurses working on the psychiatric unit. Jack mentions to you that the biological model for mental illness is the one he embraces, and states “it’s the only one I really believe.” Which of the following statements is true regarding believing in only the biological model?

a.) The biological model is the oldest and most reliable model for explaining mental illness.

b.) The biological model does not explain every symptom of mental illness.

c.) The biological model is the most popular theory among leading psychiatrists and therefore the one that should be fully embraced.

d.) In believing only the biological model, other influences on mental health including cultural, environmental, social, and spiritual influences are not taken into account.

d.) In believing only the biological model, other influences on mental health including cultural, environmental, social, and spiritual influences are not taken into account.

In believing only in the biological model to the exclusion of other theories and perspectives, influences such as educational, social, spiritual, cultural, environmental, and economic are not considered, and these have also been proven to play a part in mental health and mental illness. The other options are untrue.


Sullivan’s term security operations and Freud’s term of defense mechanisms both reflect actions that serve to:

a.) increase self-esteem.

b.) reduce anxiety.

c.) increase self-awareness.

d.) reduce cognitive distortions.

b.) reduce anxiety.

Both Sullivan and Freud coined terms to mean actions that individuals do that are an attempt to reduce anxiety. The terms to do not refer to activities that increase self-esteem. Security operations and defense mechanisms are not conscious and therefore do not increase self-awareness. These terms do not refer to reducing cognitive distortions.


Using the total environment, including the people, setting, and emotional climate, as therapy is called _______ therapy.