Flashcards in 2. Religious Depth Study: Islam Deck (21):
Outline the contribution Aisha made to Islamic law and sacred texts
As the wife of Muhammad, Aisha's understaffing of the beliefs and practices of Islam are directly influenced by the prophet, her intimate witness to his behaviours allowed her to contribute over 2000 of Muhammad's phrases to the hadiths. Her intelligence also allowed to contribute to Islamic law in her association Quranic ruling in needing 4 witnesses to prove zina (sura 24:4) and use of sand to clean when water scarce (sura 5:6)
Recount sura 24:4
"To those who accuse chaste women, then cannot bring four witnesses, whip them eighty lashes, and do not ever accept their testimony."
Recount sura 5:6
"...and could not find water, then use some clean sand...He intends to purify you."
Outline the contribution of Aisha as a leader
Her position as a leader following Muhammad's death was influential through her leading into the Battle of the Camel, in which her lead over thirty thousand soldiers against Ali, catalysing the separation of Sunni and Shia traditions.
She established a school of jurisprudence for men and women.
She was a role model who displays religious diligence.
Outline the impact of Aisha as a significant female in Islam
Aisha represents a model for female Muslim behaviour, both as a wife, yet also as an individual.
Her identity as a female scholar provided a foundation for women to contribute intellectually to Islamic understanding
She created a sense of respect for women as she challenges man's respect for women (Sahih al-Bukhari)
Recount Sahih al-Bukhari Book 8 Hadith 166
"... it is not good that you people have made us (women) equal to dogs and donkeys..."
Outline the impact of Aisha as a scholar in modern Islam
Aisha's relationship with Muhammad allowed for a contribution to hadiths, with provide a guide for modern Muslims to follow and imitate Muhammas.
Her understanding of Quranic text allows current Islamic adherents to acquire a deeper understanding of the sacred text.
Her ability to adapt Islamic law has impacted how jurisprudence is conducted and applied to modern issues
Outline how the belief of zina as haram influences the life of adherents
Zina refers to fornification and extra-martial sexual relations, which is viewed as an attack on the Islamic community. The severity of zina is revealed in sura 68:5; "do not commit fornification. Whoever does that shall encounter its retribution."
Adultery is also considered haram due to the subsequent pregnancy and issue of inheritances.
Outline how the belief in 'nafs', modesty and privacy influence the life of adherents
Concepts of modesty and privacy are imperative to the practice of Islam in resisting the temptations of the 'nap's; one's inner desirous soul.
Muhammad warns against lustful gazes; "tell the believing men to retain their looks, and to guard their privates. That is purer for them, God is cognisant of what they do" (sura 24:30)
As a result, they are conscious of their attire outside of the home (hudud). Men wear long pants and women wear long skirts and loose clothing.
Outline how the belief in martial sex influences the life of adherents
Sexual relations can only occur inside a heterosexual marriage, all other circumstances are haram.
This is due to he complementarity principle; belief that men and women have different but complementary roles.
"they are a garment for you and you are a garment for them." (sura 2:187)
The purpose of marriage is for companionship and procreation. All form of sexual acts within marriage are thus considered halal, except for six during menstruation (Surah al-Baqarah 2:222)
Outline how the beliefs in homosexuality influence the life of adherents
Islam does not permit the practice of homosexuality as it cannot not fulfil the birth of children which is central to the progression of Islam. It is viewed as a deviation.
Adherents who identify as homosexual or bisexual are instructed to abstain from homosexual acts, identifying that attraction is not the sin. Hermaphrodites are given to right to adopt and then adhere to their gender of choice.
"and we rained a rain upon them. See now the nature of the consequence of evil doers!" (sura 7:84 - sodomy)
Briefly outline Day 1 of Hajj
1. Miqat - arrive and enter a state of purity (ihram) They enter the Grand Mosque chanting "...Oh Allah, forgive me of my sins and open me to the doors of your mercy..."
Briefly outline Day 2 of Hajj
1. Prayer at Station of Ibrahim. Adherents recite two rah'aks (part of shahada) at the station of Ibrahim as part of retracting Abraham's steps. Adherents believe that as Abraham was building the Ka'ba, he stood on a rock which became soft and left impressions of his feet, which pilgrims can see.
2. Tawaf. Adherents circle the Ka'ba anti-clockwise seven times and end with prayers to Allah. Retraces the footsteps of Abraham and Ishmael who circled the Ka'ba seven times after building it; represents an act of worship. Adherents must be clean, cannot lift face towards the Ka'ba, talk to other pilgrims or take a rest.
3. Sai - fast walk 7 times between Safa and Marwa, retracting the footsteps of Hagar in search of water
Briefly outline Day 2-7 of Hajj
Qibla - Muslims pray towards the Ka'ba, in the belief they are praying directly to God.
Briefly outline Day 8 of Hajj
Travel to Mina - pilgrims re-enter state ihram, and spend the night in Mina (retracting steps of Muhammad).
Briefly outline Day 9 of Hajj
1. Arrive at Mt Arafat - pilgrims spend the day in prayer as it is believed that prayers are particularly heard and answers at Mt. Arafat. "Hajj is Arafat" (Haddith)
2. Travel to Muzadallifa - worshippers collect pebbles in order to stone Satan
Briefly outline Day 10 of Hajj
1. Jumraat - pilgrims stone the largest of three stone pillars with sevens stones. Symbol of rejecting Satan.
2. Men shave heads
Briefly outline Day 11 of Hajj
Eid - pilgrims offer a sheep as sacrifice, which is process and sent to impoverished. Symbolic of the ram Abraham slaughtered instead of Ishmael
Briefly outline Day 12 and 13 of Hajj
12 - stoning of middle stone pillar with seven pebbles
13 - stoning of smaller stone pillar with seven pebbles. Pilgrims remove ihram and return to Mecca to do away again
Identify the purpose of Hajj
Islamic unity, equality, devotion to Allah, express obedience and to gain merit.