Flashcards in 3. Religious Depth Study: Judaism Deck (18):
Explain the contribution and impact of Isaiah in regard to following the LAW
1. Isaiah 1:4 exposes how Judah is overcome with "iniquity", "evildoing" and "forsook" their relationship with God.
2. His challenging message was retained by both its initial and contemporary audience due to its accurate, simple nature and extensive use of images.
3. His summation of the 613 mitzvot into 6 ethical principles provided Jews with a simplified guide (Makkot 24a:17)
Explain the contribution and impact of Isaiah in regards to love and devotion to God
1. Isaiah identifies Judah's polytheistic practices and reinforces monotheism
2. Monotheism is reinforced in the Modern practice of Shema; "Hear O Israel, the Lord is our God; the Lord is one."
3. He targets religious leaders in Isaiah 1:13-14 as they rituals are "vain" and show no devotion to God
4. Tikkun Olam seeks to restore the world through caring for the oppresses
5. Yom Kippur - Isaiah 58:6-10 is recited and adherents complete righteous acts to show genuine repentance
Explain the contribution and impact of Isaiah in regard to obeying God
1. He introduces theme of judgement and salvation in Isaiah 1:19-20 - they will be "devoured by the sword".
2. God offers a Messianic hope for adherents through the image of a 'City of Righteousness' which is lead by the Messiah
3. Tikkun Olam flows from this belief as Orthodox Jews believe that the Messiah will come sooner if righteous acts are done
4. Isaiah prophesies the Messiah in Isaiah 9:6 and how he will support the New Jerusalem with "justice and righteousness"
5. Variant views of Messiah
Identify the basis for ethical judgements in Judaism
The Torah, in conjunction with Halacha and Talmud provide the basis for Judaism's ethical system.
What is the source of sexual desires
Evil impulse - 'yetzer ra'
Describe the roles of sex
1. Procreation (Genesis 1:28)
2. Companionship (Genesis 2:18)
Explain Judaism's ethical teachings on Niddah
Niddah refers to a women's state of impurity during her menstruation. This is because a period is a symbol of the death of a potential life form. During this time, married couples abstain from any form of physical contact until 7 days after bleeding had stopped. This period finishes with a Mikvah (ritual cleansing). Practiced mainly by Orthodox Jews and forces couples to form a non-sexual bond
Recite Leviticus 15:19 (Niddah)
When a women has her regular flow of blood, the impurity of her mostly period will last seven days, and anyone who touches her will be unclean till evening" (Leviticus 15:19)
Explain Judaism's ethical teachings on Homosexuality
Homosexuality is strictly prohibited due to the Torah's command that "you shall not lie with a man as with a woman, it is an abomination" (Leviticus 18:22)
This is because it undermines the paradigm of the family unit and command to "be fruitful and multiply"
Conservative and Progressive Jews are more likely to accept homosexuality as they imply homosexual rabbis and conduct homosexual marriages
Explain Judaism's ethical teachings on Birth Control and Abortion
Birth Control: Permitted is short, defined intervals, as long as couples have the intention of fulfilling the mitzvah to procreate. Methods with block the seed are not permitted.
Abortion: not generally permitted but is permitted when it places the mother's life at risk (rodef). Whilst the child is in utero, it is only considered a 'potential life form'.
Identify the purpose of marriage with textual references
1. Intimacy "...a man will leave his father and mother and be united with his wife, and they will become one flesh" (Genesis 2:24)
2. Procreation "be fruitful and increase in number, fill the earth and subdue it" (Genesis 1:28)
3. Companionship "it is not good for man to be alone" (Genesis 2:18)
Discuss the Jewish view in intermarriage
In all streams of Judaism, intermarriages are not considered valid
Discuss the process of bethel, both in Traditional and Modern Judaism
The Betrothal is part of the formal commitment between two individuals for marriage. In traditional Judaism, betrothals could only be contracted by a 'matchmaker' and included a transfer of money, a contract of betrothal declaration or sexual intercourse. In Modern Judaism, the transfer of an item of value (ring) is the only practice undertaken.
Describe any rituals that occur before the wedding day
Mikvah: four days before the wedding, the bride will immerse herself in the mikvah; a bath of ritual and spiritual cleansing fed by pure rain or spring water.
Describe the elements of a Jewish wedding ceremony
Fast: both bride and groom fast so that they come to the chuppah in a state of solemnity and both parties sins are forgiven
Bride wears a white dress, symbolic of purity
Circling the groom: symbolic of the woman encompassing and protecting the man. (Only orthodox practice strictly)
Ketubah: contract given by groom to bride. Orthodox Jews have it read and given to wife who must keep it, Conservative and Progressive Jews just have it read.
Ring: symbolic of eternal love and sealing of marriage contract. The ring must be the groom's property and have no embellishments. In non-orthodox, women also give ring and recite Songs of Solomon 6:3
Breaking of Glass: symbolic of destruction of Temple of Jerusalem and brokenness of the world
Explain how the practice of Jewish ceremony is an expression of beliefs
1. Reminds and emulates adherents belief in their covenantal relationship with God.
2. Shows an obedience to God's covenantal commandments and devotion to God.
Explain the significance of marriage for individuals
1. creates a binding, intimate and spiritual relationship with God.
2. allows individuals to follow the commandments of God. Ketubah creates a spiritual connection in communal beliefs in God. Chuppah symbolises the martial home they create. Seven Blessings remind both parties the blessing of God.