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Flashcards in 2 - The Endocrine System Deck (15)
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1

Define the endocrine system

An important communication system in the body, based on chemical signals that are transmitted in the form of hormones

2

Outline how the endocrine system works

- Glands in the body produce hormones
- Hormones are secreted into the bloodstream
- Hormones affect target organs (with receptor cells to match the hormone)

3

What regulates the endocrine system + triggers glands to make and secrete hormones?

Hypothalamus + pituitary gland

4

Define a gland

Organ in the body that synthesises substances such as hormones

5

Define a hormone

Biochemical substance that circulates in the blood + affects target organs

6

Give 2 examples of hormones (which glands produce them + their role)

1) Thyroxine
- Produced by: thyroid gland
- Role: increases heart rate, increases metabolic rate

2) Adrenaline
- Produced by: adrenal gland
- Role: multiple, including… increased heart rate/blood flow to muscles and brain, increased breathing/oxygen flow to muscles and brain

7

Where is the pituitary gland + what does it do?

- In the brain (controlled by the hypothalamus)
- The ‘master gland’ that controls the secretion of hormones from other glands

8

What is the fight or flight response?

Way an animal responds when its stressed. Body is physiologically aroused in readiness to fight an aggressor or flee.

9

What systems are involved in the fight or flight response?

- The Autonomic Nervous System (unconscious branch of PNS)
- The Endocrine System

10

What activates the fight or flight response?

The hypothalamus when danger is detected

11

Outline the fight or flight response

- Danger is presented + hypothalamus is stimulated
- Hypothalamus activates 2 forms of physiological arousal…
ANS: Shift from parasympathetic to sympathetic state. This prepares + excited the body for action.
ENDOCRINE SYSTEM: Pituitary gland produces ACTH to trigger adrenal glands to release adrenaline. Adrenaline arouses body.
- Once danger removed, parasympathetic nervous system activated to calm the body (return to rest + digest)

12

How do the effects of adrenaline help the fight or flight response?

- Increased heart rate: more blood flow provides brain + muscles with more glucose to run or fight

- Increased breathing rate: more oxygen for brain to make quick decisions

13

What is ACTH?

Short term stress hormone
- Triggers adrenal glands in the fight or flight response

14

Give one negative evaluation point for the fight or flight response

May only apply to men
- Taylor et al said it only applies to men + women have evolved a different response based on role as primary caregivers
- Women TEND (use nurturing behaviours to protect themselves + their offspring) + BEFRIEND (form protective alliance with other females against the danger)
- Experiments using females rats supported this (oxytocin hormone released - de-stressor, prohibiting fight or flight)
- So, evidence supports that women have a different response to danger

15

Give one positive evaluation point for the fight or flight response

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