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Flashcards in 2: Translation and Translations Deck (18)
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What are the three types of translations?

  1. Formal Equivalence
  2. Functional (or Dynamic) Equivalence
  3. Paraphrase


What is the formal equivalence approach?

Preserves the form of the original language as much as the new "receptor" language into which one is translating permits.

"Translating literal but literary"


What is the functional (or dynamic) equivalence approach?

Translates using words or expressions that duplicate the original function even if less exactly equivalent word by word. 

"Translating the ideas"


What is the paraphrase approach?

Freer than the functional equivalent.


What are some examples of formal equivalence translations?


What are some weaknesses of the KJV? How did the NKJV try to help?

  1. archaic english - an increasing number of people cannot understand
  2. faulty textual base - we can now know original readings that were not available for 17th century translators
  • NKJV tries to remedies the first but not the second,  although it includes footnotes for important variant readings


How did the NASB came to be?


What are the RSV and NRSV translations characteristics?

  • RSV having a liberal bias
  • NRSV was a revision that introduced inclusive language

They were both

  1. Ecumenical in its orientation
  2. International in its representation
  3. Widely heralded in academic circles


What are the characteristics of the ESV?

  1. Preserved the older and poetic language in numerous places
  2. Thoroughly evangelical in perceived liberal passages
  3. Very formally equivalent and aesthetically pleasing to read
  4. Introduced inclusive language where no "representative male headship" could possibly have been intended.


What are some translations that have the middle ground between formal equivalence and functional equivalence?

  • NAB (New American Bible, 1970)
  • NEB (New English Bible, 1970)
  • REB (Revised English Bible, 1989)
  • JB (Jerusalem Bible, 1966)
  • NJB (New Jerusalem Bible, 1986)
  • NET (New English Translation, 2005)
  • HCSB (Holman Christian Standard Bible)
  • NIV/TNIV (New International Version)


What are the characteristics of the JB/NJB?


What are the characteristics of the NAB?


What are the characteristics of the NEB?


What are the characteristics of the HCSB?


What are the characteristics of the NET?


What are the characteristics of the NIV/TNIV?

  • accuracy. fluency, intelligibility


What are some fully functional equivalent translations?

  • GNT (Good News Translation)
  • NLT (New Living Translation)
  • CEV (Contemporary English Version)
  • AMP (Amplified Bible)


How can we trust that we know what the biblical authors wrote when there are so many different Bible translations?

Differences deal with nuances, not with the fundamental truths of Christianity.