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Flashcards in 2. Transport Systems Deck (172)
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1
Q

What are cells?

A

The building blocks of any living thing.

2
Q

What are tissues?

A

Groups of cells with a similar structure and function

3
Q

What are organs?

A

Different tissues working together

4
Q

What are organ systems?

A

Groups of organs that perform a particular function

5
Q

What are organisms?

A

A whole living thing

6
Q

Why do large organisms need a transport system?

A
  • absorb nutrients and respiratory gases and to remove excretory products
  • transport materials between exchange surface and the cell
7
Q

When is there a greater need for a specialised transport system?

A

When there is a lower SA/V ratio because the organism is more active

8
Q

What are adaptations of red blood cells?

A

They have an unusual shape and are concave to give them an increased surface area

9
Q

What is haemoglobin?

A

A large protein molecule folded around four iron atoms

10
Q

Equation for oxyhemoglobin?

A

Haemoglobin + Oxygen = Oxyhemoglobin

11
Q

What happens to haemoglobin in a high concentration of oxygen?

A

It reacts with the oxygen

12
Q

What happens to oxyhaemoglobin in a low concentration of oxygen?

A

The oxyhemoglobin splits to form oxygen and haemoglobin and the oxygen diffuses to where it’s needed

13
Q

What is plasma?

A

The clear liquid of blood that remains after red blood cells are removed

14
Q

What does plasma contain?

A

Water, salts, antibodies and other proteins

15
Q

What is plasma for?

A

It’s a transporting medium for cells and a variety of substances

16
Q

What does plasma help carry out?

A

Blood clotting, fighting diseases

17
Q

What do white blood cells do?

A

Engulf then digest pathogens

18
Q

What are pathogens?

A

Microbes that cause disease

19
Q

What can white blood cells produce?

A

Antibodies and antitoxins

20
Q

What are platelets?

A

Small fragments of cell which are important in blood clotting

21
Q

What direction do arteries carry blood?

A

Away from the heart

22
Q

What direction do veins carry blood?

A

Towards the heart

23
Q

Which has a pulse : arteries or veins?

A

Arteries

24
Q

What do valves do?

A

Prevent the back flow of blood as it moves from the body to the heart

25
Q

What are capillaries?

A

Blood vessels that form a network between arteries and veins

26
Q

What artery takes blood to the rest of the body?

A

Aorta

27
Q

What vein takes blood from the body to the heart?

A

Vena cava

28
Q

What blood vessel takes oxygenated blood towards the heart?

A

Pulmonary vein

29
Q

What blood vessel takes deoxygenated blood towards the lungs?

A

Pulmonary artery

30
Q

What blood vessel takes blood into the kidney?

A

Renal artery

31
Q

Why are capillaries narrow?

A
  • nutrients can reach cells of organs

* blood flow is slowed down and blood pressure is lowered

32
Q

What is the job of the circulatory system?

A

To transport blood containing substances such as oxygen around the body

33
Q

What do coronary arteries supply the heart with?

A

Oxygen and glucose for respiration

34
Q

Why is the cardiac muscle of the left ventricle thicker than the right?

A

It needs to create pressure to pump the blood around the body whereas the left only has to take it to the lungs

35
Q

What are artificial pacemakers?

A

Electrical devices that are used to correct irregularities in heart rate

36
Q

Why are the alveoli good for gas exchange?

A
  • very thin walls make diffusion easy
  • moist surface makes diffusion easy as gases dissolve
  • spherical shape gives relitavely large surface area for diffusion
37
Q

What does the breathing system do?

A

Takes air in and out of the body

38
Q

What pH is oxygen?

A

neutral , 7

39
Q

What pH is CO2?

A

Acidic,

40
Q

What are the muscles between the ribs called?

A

Intercostal muscles

41
Q

What happens to the pressure as the volume inside the chest increases?

A

It decreases

42
Q

What is a stent?

A

A metal mesh that is placed in the artery

43
Q

How does a stent open up a blood vessel?

A

A tiny balloon is inflated to open up the blood vessel and the stent

44
Q

Advantages/ disadvantages of mechanical valves?

A

They last for a long time but you have to take medicine

45
Q

Advantages/ disadvantages of biological valves?

A

They work well and the patient doesn’t need medicine but they only last for about 15 years

46
Q

What is coronary heart disease?

A

Fatty deposits in the walls of the coronary arteries reducing the supply of oxygen to heart muscle

47
Q

What enzyme does the mouth contain?

A

Salivary amylase

48
Q

What does the liver do?

A

Makes bike

49
Q

What does the gall bladder do?

A

Stores bile

50
Q

What does bile contain?

A

Bile salts and alkali

51
Q

What does the stomach squirt on food?

A

Hydrochloric acid

52
Q

What enzyme does the stomach produce?

A

Gastric protease (pepsin)

53
Q

What enzymes does the pancreas produce?

A

Pancreatic protease (trypsin)

Pancreatic amylase

Pancreatic lipase

54
Q

What does the pancreas produce as well as enzymes?

A

Alkali

55
Q

What enzymes does the small intestine produce?

A

Lipase, protease and carbohydrases

56
Q

What are the two types of carbohydrase that the small intestine produces?

A

Amylase and Maltese

57
Q

What do protease enzymes do?

A

Digest proteins to amino acids

58
Q

What do lipase enzymes do?

A

Digests fats or lipids to fatty acids and glycerol

59
Q

What do amylase enzymes do?

A

Digests starch to sugars

60
Q

Where is bile released?

A

On the food in the small intestine

61
Q

What does bile do?

A

Emulsifies lipids from large fat droplets with a small surface area

62
Q

What does bile NOT contain?

A

Enzymes

63
Q

Why does bile emulsify fats?

A

So that they have larger surface areas so they can be digested quickly and efficiently by lipase enzymes

64
Q

Why does bile contain alkali?

A

To provide optimum pH for the action of enzymes

65
Q

What is absorbed into the blood through the walls of the small intestine?

A

Small, soluble products of digestion (sugars and amino acids)

66
Q

What are the small intestines adaptations for absorption?

A

Villi

67
Q

Good things about villi?

A
  • they have a rich blood supply for a steep concentration gradient and quicker diffusion
  • large surface area
  • thin wall so there is a short distance for diffusion to take place
  • they have microvilli
68
Q

What process absorbs nutrients into the blood through the wall of the small intestine?

A

Active transport

69
Q

What are enzymes?

A

Biological catalysts that change the rate of reactions

70
Q

What are enzymes made up of?

A

Long chains of amino acids

71
Q

What is the active site?

A

The chains of amino acids folded to make shapes which allows other molecules to fit into the enzymes

72
Q

What is the activation energy?

A

The minimum amount of energy particles must have to react

73
Q

What do enzymes do in terms of activation energy?

A

Lower the activation energy

74
Q

Are catalysts used up in a reaction?

A

No, you can use them over and over again

75
Q

How do catalysts work?

A

By bringing reacting particles together and lowering the activation energy needed

76
Q

What is the substrate?

A

The reactant of a reaction

77
Q

What is it called when the enzyme and substrate bind together?

A

The substrate-enzyme complex

78
Q

How does temperature effect enzymes?

A

If temperatures are over about 40 degrees the protein structure is affected and the active site shape changed

79
Q

What is it called when enzymes don’t work anymore?

A

They have denatured

80
Q

What temperatures do most enzymes work best in?

A

20 to 40 degrees

81
Q

What two factors and affect enzyme action?

A

pH and temperature

82
Q

What happens if an enzyme is in the wrong pH ?

A

Forced and changes the shape of the molecule

83
Q

What happens to the rate of a reaction as the temperature increases?

A

It increases

84
Q

What is the optimum pH for pepsin?

A

about pH 1.5

85
Q

What is the optimum pH for trypsin?

A

about pH 8

86
Q

Where is pepsin found?

A

In the stomach along with HCL

87
Q

Where is pancreatic amylase found?

A

In the small intestine along with alkaline bile

88
Q

What would be impossible without enzymes?

A

Respiration, photosynthesis and protein synthesis

89
Q

What does amylase in saliva break down starch into?

A

Simple sugars

90
Q

What is phenolphthalein?

A

It is an indicator which turns from colourless (alkali conditions) to pink (acidic conditions)

91
Q

What are lipase enzymes produced by?

A

The pancreas and the small intestine

92
Q

What pH is food leaving the stomach?

A

Acidic

93
Q

What pH do lipase and other enzymes in the small intestine work best at?

A

Alkaline conditions

94
Q

Where in the digestive system is water reabsorbed?

A

The large intestine

95
Q

What is the order of processes that happen in the digestive system?

A

Ingestion, digestion, egestion

96
Q

Where is bile produced?

A

The liver

97
Q

Which enzymes are involved in digesting starch to glucose?

A

Amylase and Maltese

98
Q

Which enzymes are produced by the stomach?

A

Proteases only

99
Q

Where is maltase produced?

A

In the small intestine

100
Q

Which acid is produced by the stomach?

A

HCL

101
Q

What are the finger like projections in the small intestine called?

A

Villi

102
Q

What is the name of the process by which absorbed food becomes a part of the body?

A

Assimilation

103
Q

What is glucose produced by amylase used for?

A

Cells of the body during respiration

104
Q

What are fatty acids and glycerol used for?

A

As a source of energy or to build cell membranes, make hormones or as fat stores

105
Q

What is immobilising an enzyme?

A

When enzymes are fixed to small beads

106
Q

Why do enzymes get immobilised?

A

Because usually after a reaction the enzyme and product are mixed up together so enzymes aren’t reusable this way

107
Q

What are enzymes also used for?

A
  • Production of sugar syrups
  • Detergents
  • To bring about reactions in normal pressures and temperatures
108
Q

What are proteases used for in industry?

A

To pre digest protein in some baby foods

109
Q

What are carbohydrases used for in industry?

A

To convert starch into sugar syrup

110
Q

What are isomerase used for in industry?

A

To convert glucose syrup into fructose syrup

111
Q

Which is more sweet; fructose or glucose?

A

Fructose

112
Q

What do stomata do?

A

Allow plants to obtain carbon dioxide from the atmosphere

113
Q

How does carbon dioxide enter a leaf?

A

By diffusion

114
Q

What increase the surface area for diffusion on a leaf?

A

A flat thin shape and internal air spaces

115
Q

What are stomata?

A

Small openings on the leaf surface

116
Q

What are the opening and closing of stomata controlled by?

A

Guard cells

117
Q

How are plant roots adapted for absorption?

A

They are thin narrow tubes and have cells near growing tips that are root hair cells which increase surface area for the uptake of substances from the soil. They also have short pathways needed for movement of water

118
Q

What do membranes of root hair cells have? What does this do?

A

Microvilli which increase surface area

119
Q

How are plants adapted to take in mineral ions using active transport?

A

They have plenty of mitochondria to supply the energy needed for active transport

120
Q

What is transpiration?

A

The loss of water from a leaf surface

121
Q

When is transpiration more rapid?

A

When it is hot, dry, windy or light

122
Q

Why does both the rate of photosynthesis and transpiration increase in the same conditions?

A

Increased rates of photosynthesis mean more stomata are opened to let in CO2, so more water is lost through open stomata.

123
Q

Where are more stomata found on leaves? Why?

A

The lower surface because this protects them from direct light and energy from the sun.

124
Q

What is wilting?

A

When a plant begins to lose water faster than replaced by roots, the leaves collapse and hang down which prevents more water loss

125
Q

What is a potometer?

A

A device which can be used to show how the uptake of water by a plant changes with different conditions

126
Q

What are the factors of transpiration?

A
  • temperature
  • humidity
  • wind
  • light intensity
127
Q

How does temperature affect transpiration?

A

It increases it as higher temperature increases kinetic energy of molecules and makes diffusion, osmosis and evaporation happen faster

128
Q

How does humidity affect transpiration?

A

It decreases it as when air is humid there is more water vapour in it and humid air is less able to accept more water molecules by evaporation.

129
Q

How does wind affect transpiration?

A

It increases transpiration as wind blows water vapour away from the stoma, keeping the concentration gradient high

130
Q

How does light intensity affect transpiration?

A

It increases it as light causes stomata to open and wider stomata allow faster diffusion for water vapour out of the leaf

131
Q

How do plants decrease rate of water loss by transpiration?

A
  • reduced number of stomata
  • thick waxy cuticle that stops evaporation and is impermeable to water
  • leaves rolled or hairy and stomata sunk in pits
132
Q

How does a leaf being rolled or stomata being sunk in pits decreased water lost in transpiration?

A

Traps moist air which increases humidity and reduces diffusion of water vapour

133
Q

Where is epidermal tissue found?

A

The top and bottom of leaf and the outside of the stem and roots

134
Q

What is the function of epidermal tissue?

A

It is protective; it stops bacteria and fungi from getting in

135
Q

What are the adaptations of epidermal tissue?

A
  • Cells fit together tightly
  • They are clear and colourless so light can pass through to chloroplasts
  • Produces a waxy cuticle
136
Q

Where is palisade mesophyll found?

A

In the middle of a leaf

137
Q

What is the function of palisade mesophyll?

A

Photosynthesis

138
Q

What are the adaptations of palisade mesophyll?

A

They have chloroplasts; in fact palisades have the most

139
Q

Where is spongy mesophyll found?

A

In the middle of the leaf

140
Q

What is the function of spongy mesophyll?

A

Photosynthesis

141
Q

What are the adaptations of spongy mesophyll?

A

They have chloroplasts and spaces in between them so gases can circulate (CO2)

142
Q

Where are xylem found?

A

Throughout the plant (roots to the rest of the plant)

143
Q

What is the function of the xylem?

A

To transport water and mineral salts

144
Q

What are the adaptations of xylem?

A

They have lignin in then which means they are hollow tubes

145
Q

What does lignin do?

A

It kills cells

146
Q

Where is the phloem found?

A

Throughout the plant

147
Q

What is the function of the phloem?

A

To transport food in the form of sugars (usually sucrose)

148
Q

What are the adaptations of phloem?

A

There are holes in the end walls so that the contents can go up and down

149
Q

Where is the meristem tissue found?

A

The tips of roots and shoots

150
Q

What is the function of meristem tissue?

A

Mitosis

151
Q

What are the adaptations of meristem tissue?

A

The cells divide constantly by mitosis

152
Q

What is translocation?

A

The movement of food molecules through the phloem

153
Q

How are sugars used?

A
  • respiration - release energy
  • meristems - where cells are dividing by mitosis for growth
  • make cellulose in cell walls
  • stored as starch in stems / roots
  • moved from storage regions to cells that need them
154
Q

What is the phloem composed of?

A

Tubes of elongated cells, cell sap can move from one cell to the next through pores on end walls

155
Q

How do guard cells control stomata?

A

They take up water by osmosis and become turgid. Inner walls are rigid so are pulled apart, opening the pore.

In darkness water moves out by osmosis and cell is flaccid and closes pore

156
Q

What factor do guard cells rely on to change the rate of transpiration?

A

Light intensity

157
Q

What tissues are found in the stomach?

A
  • smooth muscle tissue
  • glandular tissue
  • nervous tissue
  • blood
  • columnar epithelium - lines stomach
158
Q

What is the pulmonary artery?

A

Carries deoxygenated blood from right ventricle to lungs

159
Q

What is the pulmonary vein?

A

Receives oxygenated blood from lungs and into left atrium

160
Q

What is one of the few veins that carries oxygenated blood?

A

Pulmonary vein

161
Q

When do faulty heart valves occur?

A

When valves don’t open/close properly so restrict blood flow or blood leaks backwards

162
Q

What is the epiglottis?

A

The flap at the back of the throat

163
Q

Advantages of stents against bypass surgery?

A

Stents don’t need a general anaesthetic or a donor or tissue match and its cheap

164
Q

Disadvantages of stents against bypass surgery?

A

Blood clotting can occur, expensive and stents don’t work for bad blockages

165
Q

What do proteases do?

A

Digest proteins to amino acids

166
Q

What do lipase do?

A

Digest fats or lipids to fatty acids ang glycerol

167
Q

What do amylase do?

A

Digests starch to sugars

168
Q

Where is bile produced?

A

The liver

169
Q

Where is bile stored?

A

The gall bladder

170
Q

Why does bile emulsify fats?

A

So they have a large surface area and can be digested quickly by lipase

171
Q

What type of substances are absorbed through the walls of the small intestine?

A

Small soluble products of digestion

Sugars and amino acids

172
Q

When is a reaction more likely to happen in terms of enzymes?

A
  • when particles are more likely to bump into each other
  • increased energy of their collisions
  • activation energy needed is reduced