3. Infection and Response Flashcards Preview

AQA GCSE Biology (9-1) > 3. Infection and Response > Flashcards

Flashcards in 3. Infection and Response Deck (93)
Loading flashcards...
1
Q

What are pathogens?

A

Microorganisms that cause disease

2
Q

What are infectious diseases?

A

Diseases that can be passed from organism to organism through water, air, direct contact and bites

3
Q

What are the four types of pathogens?

A

Bacteria, viruses, protists, fungi

4
Q

Who was Ignaz Semmelweis?

A

The man who found out that disease can be spread by not washing your hands ie. direct contact

5
Q

What type of pathogens are measles?

A

Viruses

6
Q

What are the symptoms of measles?

A

Fever and red skin rash

7
Q

Treatment / prevention for measles?

A

People get vaccinated as children

8
Q

How are measles spread?

A

Inhalation of droplets from sneezes

9
Q

What type of pathogen is HIV?

A

Virus

10
Q

What type of pathogen is tobacco mosaic virus?

A

Virus

11
Q

What type of pathogen is salmonella?

A

Bacteria

12
Q

What type of pathogen is gonorrhoea?

A

Bacteria

13
Q

What type of pathogen is rose black spot?

A

Fungi

14
Q

What type of pathogen is malaria?

A

Protist

15
Q

What are the symptoms of HIV?

A

Flu, and if not treated it can attack the immune system

16
Q

What are the symptoms of tobacco mosaic virus?

A

Mosaic pattern, discolouration that affects plant growth

17
Q

What are the symptoms of salmonella?

A

Fever, cramps, vomiting, diarrhoea

18
Q

What are the symptoms of gonorrhoea?

A

Thick yellow/green discharge from vagina or penis, pain when urinating

19
Q

What are the symptoms of rose black spot?

A

Purple/black spots develop on leaves. They turn yellow and fall off

20
Q

What are the symptoms of malaria?

A

Recurrent episodes of fever

21
Q

Treatment / Prevention for HIV?

A

Antiretroviral drugs

22
Q

Treatment / Prevention for tobacco mosaic virus?

A

No treatment

23
Q

Treatment / Prevention for salmonella?

A

Poultry vaccinate

24
Q

Treatment / Prevention for gonorrhoea?

A

Antibiotic penicillin or barrier method e.g. condom

25
Q

Treatment / Prevention for rose black spot?

A

Use fungicides or remove leaves infected

26
Q

Treatment / Prevention for malaria?

A

Prevent mosquitos from breeding, use nets to avoid being bitten

27
Q

How is HIV spread?

A

sexual contact or exchange of bodily fluids e.g. using the same needles after a blood test

28
Q

How does tobacco mosaic virus affect plants?

A

Affects growth due to lack of photosynthesis

29
Q

How is salmonella spread?

A

Bacteria spread in food or on food prepared in unhygienic conditions

30
Q

How is gonorrhoea spread?

A

Sexual contact

31
Q

How does rose black spot affect plants?

A

Affects growth as photosynthesis is reduced

32
Q

How is rose black spot spread?

A

By water or wind

33
Q

How is malaria spread?

A

Life cycles that includes a mosquito

34
Q

What are the body’s main barriers to disease?

A
  • tears
  • cilia and mucus
  • HCl
  • skin
35
Q

How are tears a defence method?

A

Contain enzymes which make them mildly antiseptic

36
Q

How is mucus a defence method?

A

In the respiratory system mucus gathers bacteria which is swallowed

37
Q

How is HCl in the stomach a defence method?

A

It contains acid which kill bacteria

38
Q

How is skin a defence method?

A

When unbroken it creates a barrier

39
Q

What does the immune system do?

A

Tries to destroy any pathogen that gets into the body

40
Q

Which cells help defend against pathogens?

A

White blood cells

41
Q

What are the three types of white blood cell?

A
  • phagocytes - ingest pathogens
  • lymphocytes - produce antibodies
  • ones that produce antitoxins
42
Q

What do phagocytes do?

A

Engulf, ingest then digest pathogens

43
Q

What do lymphocytes do?

A

Produce antibodies which destory particular bacteria or viruses

44
Q

Why do some white blood cells produce antitoxins?

A

To counteract with toxins released by pathogens

45
Q

How do bacteria cause disease?

A

Splitting into 2 and reproducing

Causing damage by releasing toxins

46
Q

How do viruses cause disease?

A

Enter body and take over cells, destroy cells as they reproduce

Also cause tissue damage and release toxins

47
Q

Are bacteria helpful or harmful?

A

Both - causes salmonella, cholera, typhoid, gonorrhoea

48
Q

Are viruses helpful or harmful?

A

Harmful - caused colds, measles, rubella and AIDS

49
Q

What is immunisation?

A

Giving protection against many diseases - involved giving a vaccine

50
Q

What is a vaccine?

A

A dead or weakened version form of the pathogen

51
Q

How do vaccines work?

A

By triggering the immune system by stimulating WBCs to produce antibodies

52
Q

Pros of vaccination?

A
  • help control infectious diseases

* prevent death or complications from these diseases

53
Q

Cons of vaccination?

A
  • don’t always work

* some people have bad reactions

54
Q

How are new strains of a disease formed?

A

When pathogens mutate (change their DNA) spontaneously

55
Q

Why are new strains of diseases spread quickly and easily?

A

No one is immune and there is no effective treatment

56
Q

What is an epidemic?

A

A spread of a new strain in one country

57
Q

What is a pandemic?

A

A spread of a new strain across more than one countru

58
Q

What do bacteria need to multiply by cell division?

A

Enough nutrients and a suitable temperature

59
Q

How to work out bacteria at the end of a growth period?

A

bacteria at start x 2 (to the power of number of divisions)

60
Q

Why do bacteria become resistant to antibiotics?

A
  • if doctors prescribe them inappropriately

* if patients don’t complete their course of medication meaning that not all bacteria is killed

61
Q

Why can’t antibiotics treat new strains?

A

Because development is slow

62
Q

How are monoclonal antibodies made?

A

Lymphocytes and tumour cells are made into hybridoma cells which can target bacteria and divide

63
Q

What is a myeloma cell?

A

A tumour cell

64
Q

What are the uses of monoclonal antibodies?

A
  • pregnancy tests
  • diagnosis
  • measuring and monitoring
  • research
  • treating disease
65
Q

How do pregnancy tests work?

A

Monoclonal antibodies bind to hormones made in pregnancy that are passed out in urine and turn test blue

66
Q

How are monoclonal antibodies used in diagnosis?

A

They bind to antigens found on pathogens or blood clots which allow doctors to detect problems

67
Q

How are monoclonal antibodies used in measuring and monitoring?

A

Hormone levels and chemicals in blood

68
Q

How are monoclonal antibodies used in treating disease?

A

They can trigger the immune system to attack cancer cells or can carry toxin drugs for radiotherapy

69
Q

Advantages of monoclonal antibodies?

A
  • bind only to a specific antigen
  • healthy cells not affected
  • treat a range of conditions
70
Q

Disadvantages of monoclonal antibodies?

A
  • more side effects
  • expensive to develop
  • combining drugs to correct MCAs is difficult
71
Q

Ways to recognise a diseased plant?

A
  • stunted growth
  • malformed stems or leaves
  • decay
  • discolouration
  • growths
72
Q

What is nitrogen used for in a plant?

A

Protein synthesis therefore growth

73
Q

What is phosphorus used for in a plant?

A

Make roots

74
Q

What is potassium used for in a plant?

A

Make flowers / fruits

75
Q

What is magnesium used for in a plant?

A

Making chlorophyll

76
Q

What are the nitrogen deficiency signs?

A

Stunted growth, yellow leaves

77
Q

What are the phosphorus deficiency signs?

A

Poor roots, purple leaves

78
Q

What are the potassium deficiency signs?

A

Yellow leaves with dead spots

79
Q

What are the magnesium deficiency signs?

A

Leaves turn yellow from bottom

80
Q

Mechanical defence responses in plants?

A
  • thorns and hairs that deter animals
  • leaves that droop when touched so the insect drops off
  • mimicry to trick animals so insects won’t lay eggs
81
Q

Chemical defence responses in plants?

A
  • antibacterial chemicals e.g. mint

* poisons that deter herbivores

82
Q

Physical defence responses in plants?

A
  • cellulose cell walls
  • waxy cuticle on leaves
  • layers of dead cells around stems (bark)
  • leaf fall
83
Q

What are non-communicable diseases?

A

Diseases that are not infectious and cannot be transmitted by microbes

84
Q

What is ARBD?

A

Brain damage after long term heavy drinking

85
Q

What is ARLD?

A

Liver damage are long term heavy drinking

86
Q

What are some symptoms of ARLD?

A

Feeling sick, weight loss, loss of appetite

87
Q

Why can alcohol cause poverty?

A

It is expensive to buy and treatments for liver and brain damage are costly

88
Q

What can smoking do to unborn babies?

A

Cause premature births and stillborns

89
Q

What can alcohol do to unborn babies?

A

Miscarriages, premature births and damage to baby’s brain or spinal cord

90
Q

Risk factors for cardiovascular disease?

A

No exercise, smoking and a bad diet

91
Q

What is chronic obstructive pulmonary disease?

A

A disease that decreases surface area of alveoli

92
Q

What are carcinogens?

A

Substances that cause cancer in living tissue

93
Q

Sources of ionising radiation?

A

UV light from sun, X-rays, accidents in nuclear power