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Flashcards in 2015 Final Study Guide Deck (84):
1

What is sociology?

Scientific study of society.

2

What do sociologists study?

Religion, music, medicine, sports, and they question EVERYTHING. "A successful sociologist makes the familiar strange."

3

What is the social imagination?

The ability to create connections between one's personal experiences and society at large. C. Wright Mills founded it.

4

What does the sociological imagination allow us to do?

The sociological imagination allows us to "make the familiar strange," or to question habits or customs that seem "natural" to us.

5

What are the main sociological theories?

Conflict theory, functionalism, symbolic interactionalism.

6

What do they tell us about how society is organized?

Society is organized and developed through social institution and conflict. It's made up of individuals and groups who conflict in ideologies and desires, which produces change in society itself.

7

Who are the classical theorists in sociology?

Karl Marx, Max Weber, Emile Durkheim, W.E.B. DuBois, August Comte, and C. Wright Mills.

8

Auguste Comte

He is the founder of what is called "social physics" or "positivism," which explained the logic and laws that govern human behavior. He is the father of sociology, as he studied sociology scientifically and viewed historical changes.

9

Karl Marx

Historical materialism is something he developed. It identifies class conflict as a primary driver of social change. His writings provide the theoretical basis for communism.

10

Max Weber

Said subjectivity is the foundation of interpretive sociology. He criticized Marx for his exclusive focus on the economy and social class, advocating sociological analysis that allowed for the multiple influences of culture, economics, and politics. He founded the concept of "Verstehen" (understand in German). This means to truly understand why people act the way they do, a sociologist must understand the meanings that people attach to their actions.

11

Emile Durkheim

He wished to understand how society holds together and the ways that modern capitalism and industrialization have transformed how people relate to one another. He argued that the division of labor didn't just affect work and productivity but had social and moral consequences as well. He is the founding practitioner of positivist sociology. E.g. Doctors (skilled laborers) are considered the creme of the crop and the medical factory workers (non-skilled workers) are the scum at the bottom of the barrel.

12

W.E.B DuBois

He is the first African American Harvard Ph.D and is involved with the double consciousness.

13

C. Wright Mills

Thinking beyond our own lives to include the lives of others, being aware of larger historical context, and thinking differently = comprehensively.

14

What are the main sociological research methods?

Qualitative, quantitative, experimental, and historcal. Within these methods are the inductive and deductive approaches.

15

What makes a study scientific?

The study must be valid, reliable, and generalizable.

16

Validity

The study measures what it is intended to measure.

17

Reliability

The likelihood of obtaining consistent results using the same methods in future studies.

18

Generalizability

Forms from particular facts or statistics. It doesn't have to be generalizable, but if it isn't, you must explain why.

19

How do you know the study is safe and ethical?

Do no harm, informed consent, protect population, preserve confidentiality, IRB (international review board), and disclosed fundings.

20

Do no harm

You can't emotionally, physically, or psychologically harm anyone involved.

21

Informed Consent

You have to inform participants know that they are involved or are participating in a study.

22

Protected Population

Minors, pregnant women, prisoners, unborn children, and disabled are all protected.

23

Confidentiality

Privacy is protected.

24

IRB

Review proposals and are the valid ethical standards.

25

Disclosed funding

To prevent research from being manipulated.

26

What are the social institutions?

Family, State, Education, Religion, Economy, and Media.

27

Qualitative

Quality. The meanings or social processes, rich in detail, only a small amount of participants, and it's most likely an interview.

28

Quantitative

Numbers. Large scales of trends, which includes, surveys and experimental methods. Large number of participants.

29

Historical Methods

research that collects data from written reports, articles, newspapers, journals, transcripts, television, diaries, artwork, and other artifacts that dates to a prior time period under study.

30

Experimental Methods

methods that seek to alter the social landscape in a specific way for a given sample of individuals and the track what resist that change yields; involves comparisons to a control group that wasn't altered in the same way.

31

Content Analysis

a systematic analysis of the content such as written work, speech, or film. E.g. Ann Morning used content analysis to investigate depictions of race in American textbooks.

32

What was Sir Ken Robinson's main points in his TED talk?

"Education Kills Creativity." Ken Robinson strives to promote an educational system that nurtures creativity rather than stifles it.

33

What was Burgois' main argument in his article?

the..

34

How do sociologists define culture?

A shared way of life among members of society. Includes our beliefs, behaviors, and practices. EVERYTHING BUT NATURE.

35

What is a subculture?

Groups united by sets of concepts, values, symbols, and shared meaning specific to members of that group that are distinctive enough to distinguish it from others within the same culture or society.

36

What is a counterculture?

actively challenges cultures' values and beliefs against the dominant norm.

37

What were the main points of Mickey Mouse Monopoly?

They sexualized women, made women dependent on men, stereotyped race, women are helpless, men are strong/brave/fearless.

38

What is socialization and when does it begin/end?

The ongoing process by which individuals internalize the values, beliefs, and norms of a given society and learn the function as members of that society (behave, talk, and dress, "normal stuff").

E.g. Tarzan or Spock wouldn't know how to behave in today's society because they haven't been socialized.

39

What is status? Ascribed? Achieved?

refers to a recognizable social position that an individual occupies.

E.g. The person who runs your class has the status of professor.

PROFESSOR Chandra Warring

40

How do networks influence our opportunities?

The strength of weak ties. Referring to the fact that relatively weak ties, those not reinforced through indirect paths, often turn out to be quite valuable because they bring new information. The strength of a weak tie has been proven especially useful in job searches.

41

What role do networks, groups, and organizations have in society?

they form and strengthen ties or groups (dyads and triads). They give us primary, secondary,a and reference groups to connect ourselves to people around us.

42

Primary Groups

Social groups, such as families or friends, composed of intimate face-to-face relationships that strongly influence the attitudes and ideals of those involved.

43

Secondary Groups

Groups marked by impersonal, instrumental relationships (those existing as a means to an end). You may or may not know all of the members. Affiliation is contingent.

44

Reference Groups

A group that we compare ourselves to.

Siblings, parents, celebrities.

45

How do sociologists define race?

Group of people who share a set of characteristics - typically, but not always, physical ones - and are said to share a common bloodline.

Race DIDN'T always exist, and it's changing. Was invented in the 17th century with the invention with slavery.

46

Ethnicity

One's ethnic quality or affiliation.

It is voluntary, self-defined, non-hierarchical, fluid, and multiple, and based on cultural differences, not physical ones per

47

What were the main themes of Race: The Power of the Illusions

The...

48

When did race emerge?

The 17th century.

49

What is a phenotype?

Physical characteristics such as skin color, hair textures, eye color, and body type. They are the basis for the social construction of race.

50

What is the difference between individual bigotry and institutional racism?

Individual bigotry is intolerance towards people who hold different opinions than yourself. Institutional racism. Institutional racism are institutions and social dynamics that may seem race neutral but actually disadvantage minority groups.

51

What is sex?

The biological difference that distinguishes males from females.

52

What is gender?

a social position; the set of social arrangements that are built around normative sex categories.

53

What is sexuality?

Sexual preferences, desires, and behaviors/identities.

54

What did Tony Porter teach in his TED talk?

Man and woman box.

55

How does gender function differently in other cultures?

Cultures have different ideas that make up the social position of gender.

E.g. The African Tribe that had men dress extravagantly to impress female suitors.

56

How does gender inequality affect society?

Glass ceilings and glass floors for women and men. Inevitably creates a society that is ruled by men and men occupy the most prestigious positions in institutions.

57

What do sociologists say about intersexuals?

Less than 2% of babies at birth are classified as intersexuals.

58

What is stratification?

Inequalities between groups of people that arise as intended or unintended consequences of the social structure.

59

Why does inequality exist according to Conley?

Humankind is pure and good. Private property makes social ills. Creates aggression, hierarchy, and competition. Inequality will always exist but shouldn't impact access to resources. Naturally thins out the population and prevents overpopulation.

60

What are scholarly views on inequality?

That it is necessary for society to run.

61

What is the difference between wealth and income?

Income is money received by a person for work or returns on investments. Wealth is a families' net worth that is totaled assets minus total debts.

62

What is the state of the middle class compared to earlier times in American history?

It's tiny compared to what it used to be.

63

What is intersectionality?

the interconnected nature of social categories such as race, class,gender as they apply to an individual group.

64

What role does intersectionality play in society?

shapes gender and class.

65

What did Waring argue in her article?

Participants regardless of gender and sexual orientation internalize being described as exotic and articulated their body and background as intriguing, attractive, and unique. Secondly, I outlined how being labeled exotic impacts respondents' romantic preferences and patterns with respect to race. Thirdly, I identified how being exotic influences interviewees most intimate dating experiences via sexual interests, expectations, and encounters.

66

What is meritocracy?

Where status and mobility are based on individual attributes, abilities, and achievements.

67

What is deviance?

any transgression of social norms.

68

What is social control?

mechanisms that create normative compliance in individuals.

69

What deviant acts did Sherry exhibit?

Sexual favors, need for attention, drug use, violence, verbal harassment.

70

What is strain theory?

deviance occurs when a society doesn't give all its members equal ability to achieve socially acceptable goals.

71

What is stigma?

A negative social label that not only changes others behavior towards a person but also alters that persons ...

72

What is anomie?

lack of the usual social or ethical standards in individuals or a group.

73

What did Robyn O'Brien say in her TED talk?

the food industry is driven by the desire for profit, which results in low-quality, easily-produced food.

74

What is medicalization?

The process by which problems or issues not traditionally seen as medical come to be framed as such.

E.g. Mental health disorders.

75

How did the process of medicalization change how mental illness was handled in the medical industry?

Medication replaced therapy and counseling.

76

What do sociologists argue about depression?

They argue that it's a mental illness. Can be aa part of your culture and background.

77

How is illness shaped by culture/society?

Different cultures have different definitions of sickness.

78

How is healthcare in the U.S. different from other societies?

It's as expensive as hell.

79

Family

Parents, usually two, breadwinner and caretaker, racially/ethical.

80

Education

Way you address professors, and the material you learn.

81

State

Racially has changed, and it also has to with media.

82

Religion

Not a popular social institution. Women can now lead the church.

83

Economy

Job availability and the recession.

84

Media

Accesible, exposes you to information that you wouldn't have had access to otherwise.