20.2 Stem Cells And Totipotency Flashcards Preview

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Flashcards in 20.2 Stem Cells And Totipotency Deck (23):
1

Cell differentiation definition

Process by which each cell develops into a specialised structure suited to the role that it will carry out

2

What are totipotent cells?

Cells which can mature into any body cell

3

What are 2 ways in which genes are prevented from expressing themselves

- preventing transcription
- preventing translation

4

What are totipotent stem cells?

Can differentiate into any type of cell

5

What are pluripotent stem cells?

Can differentiate into almost any type of cell

6

What are multipotent stem cells?

Can differentiate into a limited number of specialised cells

7

What are unipotent stem cells?

Can differentiate into a single type of cell

8

What are induced pluripotent stem cells?

Pluripotent cell derived from unipotent cells by inducing genes and transcriptional factors within the cell to turn on genes

9

What is a use of pluripotent cells

- regrow tissue e.g skin tissue
- treat diseases e.g Parkinson’s disease

10

what is self- renewal?

process where stem cells divide to produce identical copies of themselves

11

why can't xylem cells and red blood cells become unspecialised after they mature?

in their mature cells there is no nucleus

12

how do cells become specialised?

certain genes are expressed and others are not at any one time

13

give an example of a totipotent stem cell

fertilised egg

14

give an example of a pluripotent stem cell

embryonic stem cells, fetal stem cells

15

give an example of a multipotent stem cell

umbilical cord blood stem cells

16

give an example of a unipotent stem cell

adult tissue

17

what are induced pluripotent stem cells similar to?

embryonic stem cells

18

what uses can iPS cells do that is helpful for medical research?

self- renewal so no need to use embryonic stem cells

19

what can induced pluripotent stem cells be used for in medicine?

regrow tissues

20

what can embryonic stem cells different to?

any type of cell

21

what can umbilical cord blood stem cells differentiate into?

red and white blood cells

22

what can plantental stem cells differentiate into?

specific types of cells

23

what an adult stem cells differentiate into?

same cells as to where they were produced