Flashcards in 20.2 Stem Cells And Totipotency Deck (23):
Cell differentiation definition
Process by which each cell develops into a specialised structure suited to the role that it will carry out
What are totipotent cells?
Cells which can mature into any body cell
What are 2 ways in which genes are prevented from expressing themselves
- preventing transcription
- preventing translation
What are totipotent stem cells?
Can differentiate into any type of cell
What are pluripotent stem cells?
Can differentiate into almost any type of cell
What are multipotent stem cells?
Can differentiate into a limited number of specialised cells
What are unipotent stem cells?
Can differentiate into a single type of cell
What are induced pluripotent stem cells?
Pluripotent cell derived from unipotent cells by inducing genes and transcriptional factors within the cell to turn on genes
What is a use of pluripotent cells
- regrow tissue e.g skin tissue
- treat diseases e.g Parkinson’s disease
what is self- renewal?
process where stem cells divide to produce identical copies of themselves
why can't xylem cells and red blood cells become unspecialised after they mature?
in their mature cells there is no nucleus
how do cells become specialised?
certain genes are expressed and others are not at any one time
give an example of a totipotent stem cell
give an example of a pluripotent stem cell
embryonic stem cells, fetal stem cells
give an example of a multipotent stem cell
umbilical cord blood stem cells
give an example of a unipotent stem cell
what are induced pluripotent stem cells similar to?
embryonic stem cells
what uses can iPS cells do that is helpful for medical research?
self- renewal so no need to use embryonic stem cells
what can induced pluripotent stem cells be used for in medicine?
what can embryonic stem cells different to?
any type of cell
what can umbilical cord blood stem cells differentiate into?
red and white blood cells
what can plantental stem cells differentiate into?
specific types of cells