2.1: Materials And Components Flashcards Preview

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Flashcards in 2.1: Materials And Components Deck (21):

What are the 4 steps of the Fourdrinier process?

Wet end
Wet press section
Dryer section
Calendar section


Types of paper and card
Paper sizes

A0 folded in half of A1, A1 folded in half A2 etc


Types of paper and card
Common paper

Layout paper
Tracing paper
Copier paper
Cartridge paper
Bond paper
Coated paper
Recycled paper
Mounting paper


Types of paper and board

Design requirements (durability, surface finish, colour, texture, opacity, weight, size etc).
Demands of the printing process.
Economic considerations (scale of production).


Types of paper and card
Paper and board
Cartonboard and advantages

Used in retail.
Must allow for high quality, high speed printing.
Ease of cutting, folded, creasing and gluing.
Must be durable enough for automated packaging equipment.

Total graphics coverage.
Excellent protection when made up.
Relatively inexpensive when compared with other forms of packaging.
Can be recycled.


Paper and board
Types of common cardboard

Folding box board
Corrugated board
Solid white board
Foil lined board


Types of paper and card
Weight and size

GSM (copier paper 80gsm).
Card and board measured in microns.
Card usually greater than 220 gsm, usually more than 2 ply.


Types of plastic

Plastics can be divided into two categories based on their properties:
Thermoplastics and thermosetting plastics.
Thermoplastics can be reheated and reformed.
Thermosetting plastics cannot be reheated once formed.
Plastics used in schools come in many forms: sheet tube, granules, square section, and then many more specialist shapes.


Acrylic (polymerthyl methacrylate)

Properties: easily worked can be machines bent with heat, or bonded with solvent. Durable.
Uses: signs, furniture, jewellery, and as an alternative to glass.
Comes as: tubes, rods, sheets.



Properties: light and hard wearing.
Uses: food containers, packaging, ropes, electrical insulation, lampshades, carpet fibres.
Comes as: granules, sheets, powder.


Nylon (polyamide)

Properties: very tough and resistant to friction.
Uses: gears and bearings, clothing, ropes, parachutes.
Comes as: granules and powders, rods, sheets.


Thermosetting plastics
Phenol formaldehyde

Properties: the earliest commercial plastic (Bakelite). Hard and dense, but brittle
Uses: saucepan and door handles, board games, telephones.
Comes as: powder and granules, sheets, rods, tubes.


Thermosetting plastics
Melamine formaldehyde

Properties: stiff, hard- and strain-resistant.
Uses: kitchen utensils, laminates (workrooms, flooring etc)., electrical fittings.
Comes as: powder and granules.


Wood and papermaking

Pulping via chemical, mechanical and waste pulp.
Fourdrinier process.


Thermosetting plastics
Urea formaldehyde

Properties: hard, strong, hear-resistant.
Uses: pressed wood products (e.g. MDF), adhesives; formerly used for electrical fittings such as switches and sockets.
Comes as: powder and granules.


Recycling plastics

Reuse- it's important to reuse plastic products such as carrier bags and drinks bottles.
Reduce - for example, many supermarkets are now giving out fewer plastic carrier bags.
Recycle - some plastics products (e.g. Bottles) can be recycled cost-effectively.
Many modern plastics are now made using biodegradable materials (e.g. Corn starch) so that they break down in the environment.


Recycle symbols
Polymer: polyethylene terephthalate (PET)

Symbol: 1
Common uses: fizzy drink and water bottles, salad trays.
Common recycling applications: fibre for stuffing, carpets etc., packaging.
Material replaced: natural and synthetic fibres, virgin PET.


Recycle symbols
Polymer: high density polyethylene (HDPE) / low density polyethylene (LDPE)

Symbol: 2 /4
Common uses: milk bottles, bleach, cleaners, shampoo bottles, carrier bags, bin liners and packaging films.
Common recycling applications: bottles (non-food and food), boxes, crates, bins and underground pipes.
Material replaced: virgin HDPE, LDPE.


Recycle symbols
Polymer: poly vinyl chloride (PVC)

Symbol: 3
Common uses: pipes, fittings, window and door frames (rigid PVC). Thermal insulation (PVC foam) and automotive parts.
Common recycling applications: building products.
Material replaced: virgin PVC


Recycle symbols
Polymer: polyethylene (PP)

Symbol: 5
Common uses: margarine tubs, microwaveable meal trays, fibres and filaments for carpets, wall coverings and vehicle upholstery.
Common reciting applications: crates, boxes, chemical containers.
Material replaced: virgin PP


Recycle symbols
Polymer: polystyrene (HIPS or EPS)

Symbol: 6
Common uses: yoghurt pots, foam burger boxes and egg cartons, plastic cutlery, packaging for electronic goods and toys, insulation.
Common recycling applications: loose fill packaging, stationery, garden furniture, building products.
Material replaced: Virgin EPS, other polymers, wood, concrete.