Flashcards in 2.1 Mesopotamia Deck (22):
Where and what, is the Fertile Crescent?
(Became known as Mesopotamia)
The Fertile Cresent is a region between the Persian Gulf, and the Mediterranean Sea.
It is an arc of land between this dry region that provide some of the bestfarming in Southwest Asia.
What are the names of the two rivers framing Mesopotamia?
The Tigris and the Euphrates.
What were the environmental challenges in this area?
Unpredictable flooding with periods of little to no rain.
No natural barriers for defense, like in Egypt or Masada.
Natural resources were limited and building materials, and other necessary items scarce.
What was the main capital city of Mesopotamia?
Name three city-states in Mesopotamia that existed around 2500 B.C.
Ur, Kish, Babylon
What were some solutions to the environmental challenges?
They dug irrigation ditches directly from the rivers to irrigate their fields this allowing them to produce good crops.
First defense they built city walls with bricks.
Traded with the people of the mountains and deserts.
What are the five key characteristics that set the Sumarians apart from other civilizations?
1 advanced cities
2 specialized workers
3 complex institutions
4 record keeping
5 and improved technology
City-states shared the same cultures, but each had it's own rulers and governments. (Similar to a small independent country)
Sumer's earliest governments were controlled by?
Religious leaders aka. Priests
Who lead the city in a time of war?
A commander/war(military) leader
When wars became more frequent shortly after 3000 B.C. Sumarian priests and people have commanders permanent control of armies.
Some military leaders became full time rulers and eventually passe ditches on to their heirs
What is a dynasty?
A series if rulers coming from a single family.
What were the Sumarians' beliefs?
They practiced Polytheism.
One of their most important gods being Enlil the God of storms and air.
What were the ranks in the Sumarian society?
Landholders/owners } all 3 were the top 1%
Craftsmen. }middle class
Slaves. }Lowest class members
Social classes affected men AND women.
Sumarian women were relatively liberated/independent and could join and work up to any class if able to.
What were some examples of Sumarian science and technology?
Supposedly: The wheel
And they were some of the first
to work with bronze
Arches, columns, ramps, # system in base 60 which later on became the system for measuring time, a system of writing
Who was Sargon of Asad?
A conqueror who took control of northern and southern Mesopotamia thus creating the WORLD'S FIRST EMPIRE.
When was Babylon made the capital of Mesopotamia?
Around 2000 B.C. (established by the Amorites during the reign if Hammurabi)
What was Hammurabi's Code?
A single uniform code of laws that would help unify diverse groups within the empire.
Hiw many laws where in the Code?
282 specific laws