Flashcards in 2.1 The Motivating Role of the Reinforcer Deck (14):
What are the two forms of motivation?
1. Conditioned behaviour
2. Deprivation and satiation
Explain what conditioned motivation is
- goal directed action
- motivation of a faily sophisticated form
- refers to situations where we choose to behave in a certain way due to belief that it will lead to a certain outocome
- variable but persistent
Explain what deprivation and satiation is
- affects activity, e.g. hungry animals move around more, foraging, looking for food
- affects preferences
What is the link between motivation and performance?
Internal states can affect performance of previously learned responses
What is frustration?
A motivational response to the omission of an expected
Can produce a paradoxical reward effect -- responding seeminlgy strengthened by the omission of reward
What role does frustration play in extinction?
- omission of reward generates frustration driving a brief spurt of activity
- this explains the partial reinforcement extinction effect
- partial Rft = reinforcement in the presence of frustration
- responding more resilient to frustration than in CRF
What was Thorndike's view of the role of motivation in learning?
- Law of Effect: the satisfaction you feel is stamping in the mental connection between the stimuli you observe and the action you perform
- satisfaction results in S-R learning
- very simple explanation and somewhat incorrect
Why was Thorndike's view of motivation somewhat incorrect?
Satisfaction should not be necessary for learning
Define latent learning
- learning which is not immediately obvious
What was Tolman's view of latent learning?
Learning occurs without reinforcement
- learning without behaviour
- reinforcement provides impetus to perform
How did Tolman show latent learning in rats?
- Rats had to navigate through a maze
- They were learning all along, making choices and responses
- When food was added it became an incentive to make less errors
- Rats given motivation to perform better, it did not change the speed or strength of learning
What did Hull propose about learning and motivation?
The concept of 'drives'.
Reinforcement = drive reduction
Biological needs (food, water, sleep, etc) motivate behavior.
Explain what is meant by:
behaviour = habit x drive
Drives energize behaviour but they do so randomly.
You need habit (learning) and drive (motivation) to produce instrumental behaviour