2.1 The Motivating Role of the Reinforcer Flashcards Preview

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Flashcards in 2.1 The Motivating Role of the Reinforcer Deck (14):

What are the two forms of motivation?

1. Conditioned behaviour
2. Deprivation and satiation


Explain what conditioned motivation is

- goal directed action
- motivation of a faily sophisticated form
- refers to situations where we choose to behave in a certain way due to belief that it will lead to a certain outocome
- variable but persistent


Explain what deprivation and satiation is

- affects activity, e.g. hungry animals move around more, foraging, looking for food
- affects preferences


What is the link between motivation and performance?

Internal states can affect performance of previously learned responses


What is frustration?

A motivational response to the omission of an expected

Can produce a paradoxical reward effect -- responding seeminlgy strengthened by the omission of reward


What role does frustration play in extinction?

- omission of reward generates frustration driving a brief spurt of activity
- this explains the partial reinforcement extinction effect
- partial Rft = reinforcement in the presence of frustration
- responding more resilient to frustration than in CRF


What was Thorndike's view of the role of motivation in learning?

- Law of Effect: the satisfaction you feel is stamping in the mental connection between the stimuli you observe and the action you perform
- satisfaction results in S-R learning
- very simple explanation and somewhat incorrect


Why was Thorndike's view of motivation somewhat incorrect?

Satisfaction should not be necessary for learning


Define latent learning

- learning which is not immediately obvious


What was Tolman's view of latent learning?

Learning occurs without reinforcement
- learning without behaviour
- reinforcement provides impetus to perform


How did Tolman show latent learning in rats?

- Rats had to navigate through a maze
- They were learning all along, making choices and responses
- When food was added it became an incentive to make less errors
- Rats given motivation to perform better, it did not change the speed or strength of learning


What did Hull propose about learning and motivation?

The concept of 'drives'.
Reinforcement = drive reduction
Biological needs (food, water, sleep, etc) motivate behavior.


Explain what is meant by:
behaviour = habit x drive

Drives energize behaviour but they do so randomly.
You need habit (learning) and drive (motivation) to produce instrumental behaviour


Where does Hull's theory lack?

For example, animals and kids like to play - doesn't satisfy an internal drive or biological need.
As individuals we vary in which type of play we enjoy - can't be explained through Hull's theory