22. Mammals II: Primates, Hominid Evolution, CNS Flashcards Preview

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Flashcards in 22. Mammals II: Primates, Hominid Evolution, CNS Deck (49):
0

Primates have a .... ancestor

Arboreal

1

Primates
- Limbs?

Grasping limbs with opposable thumb

2

Primates - eyes?

Forward-facing (depth perception)

3

Primates - social?

- Reduced brood size
- Extended parental care

4

2 major groups of primates?

- Prosimians
- Anthropoids

5

What are prosimians?

Lemurs, loris, etc.

Arboreal and nocural

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Which primate is the only one entirely carnivorous?

Tarsier

7

New world vs old world monkey?

New world: South American - prehensile tail (to grasp/hold objects) present in most new world monkey, not in old world monkeys - flat nose, arboreal

Old world: Africa, Asia

8

Examples of Old world monkeys?

- Macaques
- Baboon
- Vervet

9

Example of New world monkeys?

- Capuchin
- Spider monkey
- Howler monkey
- Vervet (Barbados - vs. South Africa)

10

What is the key difference between monkey and apes?

Larger brain to body size ratio

11

What are African Apes?

Gorrillas, chimpanzees, hominids

12

Gibbons, Orangutangs and African apes - what in common?

All lack tail

13

Size of gibbons?

Smaller than other apes

14

What can't orangutangs do?

Cross from one tree to another by branches (too big). Must go down, walk between them, climb back up.

15

4 large categories of hominids?

- Ardipithecus
- Australopithecus
- Paranthropus
- Homo...

16

What was found about the ardipithecus ramidus in 2009?

That they walked upright (no use of arms like chimps), yet retained primitive big toe that could grasp a tree like an ape

17

Brain size of australopithecus?

35% of modern human brain

18

Lucy, an australopithecus afarensis, provided evidence that...

- Bipedalism evolved before brains fully evolved

19

2 early homo species?

Homo habilis (handy, skillful)
Homo erectus (standing)

20

Ardipithecus ramidus - how many years ago?

4 mya

21

Australopithecus - how many years ago?

3.5 mya

22

Homo habilis - how many years ago?

2.5-1.5 mya (first tool use: 2 mya)

23

Homo erectus - how many years ago?

1.6 mya - 250,000 ya

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Facies of homo habilis?

Shorter jaw, bigger brain

25

First hominid to leave Africa and spread to Eurasia?

Homo erectus

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First fire use by?

Homo erectus

27

Homo erectus physiology?

- As large as modern humans
- Smaller brain, thicker skull

28

2 recent homo species?

- Homo neanderthalensis
- Homo sapiens

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Homo neanderthalensis - how many years ago?

30,000 ya

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Homo sapiens - how many years ago?

0.2 mya

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Homo neanderthalensis physiology?

- Short, stalky, powerful build
- Larger brain than homo sapiens

32

Reason of disappearance of homo neanderthalensis?

Extermination by homo sapiens

33

Homo sapiens - physiology?

- Larger brains than earlier homo species (complex social life)

34

Have homo sapiens interbreed with neanderthals?

Yes

35

DNA other than Homo sapiens?

- 2% in non-African from Neanderthals
- 5% in Melanesians from Denisovans

36

What other species could have coexisted with homo sapiens? When and where? Why went extinct?

- Indonesia
- Extinction: 17,000 YA, volcanic eruption

37

Central nervous system?

Dorsal, hollow tube of nervous tissue
- Large cephalic ganglion (brain)
- Long tube inferior to it (spinal cord)

38

Peripheral nervous system?

Lateral nerves
- Cranial nerves from brain
- Spinal nerves from spinal cord

39

Unconscious physiological information (blood pressure, body temperature)?

PNS x Hormones

40

Autonomic commands (heart rate, sweating, salivation)?

PNS x Neurohormones

41

Conscious sensory information?

Hormones x Neural afferents

42

Voluntary commands and behaviour?

Neurohormones x Neural efferent

43

Parasympathetic =

Rest and digest

44

Sympathetic =

Fight or flight

45

Four distinct features of human brain?

- Cerebrum
- Cerebellum
- Diencephalon
- Brain stem

46

Cerebrum - in mammals?

Enlarged

47

Role of cerebrum?

Intellect, learning, memory, language, consciousness

48

What is called the top layer of cerebrum?

Cerebral cortex