Flashcards in 9. Fungi Deck (82):
Explanation for witchcraft at Salem?
People had ingested fungi, which might be why they were acting weirdly, having seizures, etc.
How is fungi our "friend"?
Make wine, beer, bread, cheese
Fungi are ....trophs
Absorptive heterotrophs - they need organic material from the outside, and they absorb it and metabolize it
What is the role of fungi?
Who do ufngi decompose?
Enzymes - no digestive system
Cell wall of fungi?
Chitin (poly-glucosamine) & glucans (polysaccharide)
Fungi - morphology?
Multicellular (most, yeast is unicellular)
Fungi - morphology?
Fungi have a .... body plan
What do we call the long branched filaments of fungi?
What do we call the tangled mass of hyphae?
What can account for the large surface area of fungi?
In many fungi, hyphae are divided into .... by...
What does saprotrophic mean?
Decomposers of dead material
How are fungi symbiotic?
- Commensal (+/0)
- Mutualistic (+/+) (with plants, animals, algae, bacteria)
- Parasitic (+/-) with plants or animals
Can fungi be predators?
Yes (can contract to capture)
What do we see of the fungi?
The fruiting bodies
Where is most of the fungi?
Underground (where it absorbs nutrients)
What is the role of fruiting bodies of fungi?
What is a mutualistic association of fungus with plant roots?
What are two types of mycorrhiza?
Ecto --> fungus hyphae do not penetrate cell walls of plant roots
Endo --> fungus hyphae grow through cell walls
How does mycorrhiza work?
Fungus receives carbohydrates from plant
Plant receives minerals and water from fungus
Mycorrhiza is older than...
What is lichen?
Fungi + cyanobacterium and/or unicellular green alga
How does lichen reproduce?
Why are lichen are pioneer species?
- Break down rocks to form soil
- Tolerate extreme climates
- Diverse in morphology, color, species
- Sensitive to toxins in air (air pollution indicators)
- Food for tundra animals
Leaf cutter ants?
Feed fungal colony, which breaks down cellulose; hyphae fed to ant larvae; ants provide food and protection (mutualistic)
3 types of fungi as plant pathogens?
- corn smut
- ergots on rye
- tar spot fungi
Types of fungi as animal pahtogens?
- Ring worm (trichlophyton microsporum)
- Athlete's food (trichophyton)
- Trush (Candida)
Fruiting bodies produce spores by....
What are spores?
Unicellular reproductive structure, generated asexually or sexually
Where does meiosis happen in fungi?
Mushroom gill - basidia
Examples of asexual reproduction in fungi?
Budding, fission, spores, conidia
Spores are produced in?
- At the tips of hyphae, then called Conidia (naked spores)
Spores are commonly dispersed by ...
Wind and water (no independent mobility)
In a m3 we find .... fungal spores
When did chitin evolve?
At the very base of fungi
Fungi flourished during....
Permian (lot of stuff to decompose after mass extinction)
Fungi are most closely related to...
Animals (than plants)
How many species of fungi known?
Base of different groups of fungi are well resolved?
False - poorly resolved
Chytrids and Zygomecetes are .... groups
Yeast - morphology
Yeast belong to which group?
Many - zygo, asco, basidiomycota
Specific of yeast?
They have plasmids (useful to study eukaryotic organism with fast reproduction cycles)
Microsporidia - always belonged to fungi?
Nope. Relationship have puzzled taxonomists for decades.
Microsporidia - size?
Microsporidia - morphology?
Specific of microsporidia?
Lost mitochondria, replaced it for mitosomes
Microsporidia are .... parasites
Chytrids - habitat?
Chytrids - what is unique?
Flagellated spores (only group with motile stage)
Chytrids - morphology?
Unicellular & multicellular stages
Chytrids are .... ic
- Mutualistic (cellulose, degradation in cattle, deer)
Are chytrids pathogens?
yes - responsible for worldwide decline in amphibians (skin infection)
Chytrids have a .... life cycle
Alternating life cycle: diploid, haploid phases (spores go to one stage to the next, meiosis happens to the end of diploid stage, multicellular haploid chytrid)
Zygomycota - habitat
Zygomycota - ic
Where are the spores of zygomycota?
In sporangia atop specialized hyphae
Zygomycota have a .... life cycle
Haplontic (mostly haploid)
In zygomycota, where is the diploid stage?
Limited to the zygote
What is plasmogamy?
In Zygomycota, process ...... zygosporangium (11:20)
What is called the merging of the nuclei?
Glomeromycota - # species?
Less than 200
Glomeromycota - habitat?
Glomeromycota form .... with plants (grasses)
What is the role of glomeromycota?
Transfer phosphorous to plants
Increase tolerance to plants
Glomerycota - reproduction?
Usual mushrooms are from which group?
Basidiomycota (club fungi)
Basidiomycota - habitat?
Basidiomycota - fruiting bodies?
Basidiomycota - special?
Only group able to completely digest ligning
...forest (?) 11:23
Basidiomycota - life cycle?
Basidiocarp is dikarotic (two nuclei that coexist independently), 11:24......
Ascomycota are called ...
What is typical of ascomycota?
Fruiting bodies avec sacs (asci)
Name a few Ascomycota
- Brewer's and baker's yeast
- Molds and mildews (penicillium + aspergillus)
Reproduction of ascomycota?
Conidia produces asexually in specialized hyphae
Diseases related to ascomycota?
- Dutch elm disease
- Chestnut blight
Ascomycota - life cycle?
- Dikaryotic mycelium (nuclei are together, but not merged - fertilization has not happened yet)
- Karyogamy (where nuclei merge)
- 8 ascus spores