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Flashcards in 9. Fungi Deck (82):
1

Explanation for witchcraft at Salem?

People had ingested fungi, which might be why they were acting weirdly, having seizures, etc.

2

How is fungi our "friend"?

Make wine, beer, bread, cheese

3

Fungi are ....trophs

Absorptive heterotrophs - they need organic material from the outside, and they absorb it and metabolize it

4

What is the role of fungi?

Decomposers (saprobes/saprotrophs)

5

Who do ufngi decompose?

Enzymes - no digestive system

6

Cell wall of fungi?

Chitin (poly-glucosamine) & glucans (polysaccharide)

7

Fungi - morphology?

Multicellular (most, yeast is unicellular)

8

Fungi - morphology?

Terrestrial (most)

9

Fungi produce...

Spores

10

Fungi have a .... body plan

Filamentous

11

What do we call the long branched filaments of fungi?

Hyphae

12

What do we call the tangled mass of hyphae?

Mycelium

13

What can account for the large surface area of fungi?

Filamentous structure

14

In many fungi, hyphae are divided into .... by...

Cell-like compartments
Porous septae

15

What does saprotrophic mean?

Decomposers of dead material

16

How are fungi symbiotic?

- Commensal (+/0)
- Mutualistic (+/+) (with plants, animals, algae, bacteria)
- Parasitic (+/-) with plants or animals

17

Can fungi be predators?

Yes (can contract to capture)

18

What do we see of the fungi?

The fruiting bodies

19

Where is most of the fungi?

Underground (where it absorbs nutrients)

20

What is the role of fruiting bodies of fungi?

Sexual reproduction

21

What is a mutualistic association of fungus with plant roots?

Mycorrhiza

22

What are two types of mycorrhiza?

Ecto --> fungus hyphae do not penetrate cell walls of plant roots
Endo --> fungus hyphae grow through cell walls

23

How does mycorrhiza work?

Fungus receives carbohydrates from plant
Plant receives minerals and water from fungus

24

Mycorrhiza is older than...

Vascular plants

25

What is lichen?

Fungi + cyanobacterium and/or unicellular green alga

26

How does lichen reproduce?

- Soredium

27

Why are lichen are pioneer species?

- Break down rocks to form soil
- Tolerate extreme climates
- Diverse in morphology, color, species
- Sensitive to toxins in air (air pollution indicators)
- Food for tundra animals

28

Leaf cutter ants?

Feed fungal colony, which breaks down cellulose; hyphae fed to ant larvae; ants provide food and protection (mutualistic)

29

3 types of fungi as plant pathogens?

- corn smut
- ergots on rye
- tar spot fungi

30

Types of fungi as animal pahtogens?

- Ring worm (trichlophyton microsporum)
- Athlete's food (trichophyton)
- Trush (Candida)

31

Fruiting bodies produce spores by....

Meiosis

32

What are spores?

Unicellular reproductive structure, generated asexually or sexually

33

Where does meiosis happen in fungi?

Mushroom gill - basidia

34

Examples of asexual reproduction in fungi?

Budding, fission, spores, conidia

35

Spores are produced in?

- Sporangia
- At the tips of hyphae, then called Conidia (naked spores)

36

Spores are commonly dispersed by ...

Wind and water (no independent mobility)

37

In a m3 we find .... fungal spores

10 000

38

When did chitin evolve?

At the very base of fungi

39

Fungi flourished during....

Permian (lot of stuff to decompose after mass extinction)

40

Fungi are most closely related to...

Animals (than plants)

41

How many species of fungi known?

100,000

42

Base of different groups of fungi are well resolved?

False - poorly resolved

43

Chytrids and Zygomecetes are .... groups

Paraphyletic

44

Yeast - morphology

Unicellular

45

Yeast belong to which group?

Many - zygo, asco, basidiomycota

46

Specific of yeast?

They have plasmids (useful to study eukaryotic organism with fast reproduction cycles)

47

Microsporidia - always belonged to fungi?

Nope. Relationship have puzzled taxonomists for decades.

48

Microsporidia - size?

Smallest eukaryotic

49

Microsporidia - morphology?

Unciellular

50

Specific of microsporidia?

Lost mitochondria, replaced it for mitosomes

51

Microsporidia are .... parasites

Obligate intracellular

52

Chytrids - habitat?

Aquatic

53

Chytrids - what is unique?

Flagellated spores (only group with motile stage)

54

Chytrids - morphology?

Unicellular & multicellular stages

55

Chytrids are .... ic

- Saprobic
- Parasitic
- Mutualistic (cellulose, degradation in cattle, deer)

56

Are chytrids pathogens?

yes - responsible for worldwide decline in amphibians (skin infection)

57

Chytrids have a .... life cycle

Alternating life cycle: diploid, haploid phases (spores go to one stage to the next, meiosis happens to the end of diploid stage, multicellular haploid chytrid)

58

Zygomycota - habitat

Terrestrial

59

Zygomycota - ic

Parasitic saprobic

60

Where are the spores of zygomycota?

In sporangia atop specialized hyphae

61

Zygomycota have a .... life cycle

Haplontic (mostly haploid)

62

In zygomycota, where is the diploid stage?

Limited to the zygote

63

What is plasmogamy?

In Zygomycota, process ...... zygosporangium (11:20)

64

What is called the merging of the nuclei?

Karyogamy

65

Glomeromycota - # species?

Less than 200

66

Glomeromycota - habitat?

Terrestrial

67

Glomeromycota form .... with plants (grasses)

Arbuscular endomycorrhizae

68

What is the role of glomeromycota?

Transfer phosphorous to plants
Increase tolerance to plants

69

Glomerycota - reproduction?

Unknown

70

Usual mushrooms are from which group?

Basidiomycota (club fungi)

71

Basidiomycota - habitat?

Terrestria, aquatic

72

Basidiomycota - fruiting bodies?

Basidiocarps

73

Basidiomycota - special?

Only group able to completely digest ligning

74

Ectomycorrhizae?

...forest (?) 11:23

75

Basidiomycota - life cycle?

Basidiocarp is dikarotic (two nuclei that coexist independently), 11:24......

76

Ascomycota are called ...

Sac fungi

77

What is typical of ascomycota?

Fruiting bodies avec sacs (asci)

78

Name a few Ascomycota

- Lichens
- Brewer's and baker's yeast
- Molds and mildews (penicillium + aspergillus)

79

Reproduction of ascomycota?

Conidia produces asexually in specialized hyphae

80

Diseases related to ascomycota?

- Ergotism
- Dutch elm disease
- Chestnut blight

81

Ascomycota - life cycle?

- Dikaryotic mycelium (nuclei are together, but not merged - fertilization has not happened yet)
- Karyogamy (where nuclei merge)
- 8 ascus spores

82

What is geomyces destructans?

Disease caused by ascomycota (cold-loving) that attacks bats ("white nose syndrome"). 7 million bats killed so far.