# 2.2 – Programming fundamentals Flashcards

1
Q

What is an Arithmetic Operator?

A

Symbol used in mathematical expressions to perform an action on two numbers (operands)
+, -, /, *, ^

2
Q

What is an Assignment?

A

Giving a variable or constant a value

e.g. counter = 0

3
Q

What is a Boolean Operator?

A

Operators used in conditions, such as AND, OR, NOT

e.g. IF choice < 1 OR choice > 3. The operators are < and >.

4
Q

What is a Condition Controlled Loop?

A

Repeating instructions depending on a condition

e.g. WHILE x < 6.

5
Q

What is a Count Controlled Loop?

A

An iteration which repeats instructions a fixed number of times

e.g. FOR counter = 1 TO 10

6
Q

What are Inputs?

A

Any information or data which goes into a computer system

7
Q

What is Iteration?

A

Code which is repeated a set number of times
Or a variable number of times based on the evaluation of a Boolean expression

condition controlled loop (e.g.WHILE)

counter controlled loop (e.g.FOR)//condition controlled loop (e.g.WHILE)

One of the three basic programming constructs

8
Q

What is an Output?

A

Any data that leaves a system

9
Q

What is Selection?

A

A decision point within a computer program
Evaluated by the ALU

One of the three basic programming constructs

10
Q

What is Sequence?

A

Instructions executing one after another

One of the three basic programming constructs

11
Q

What is a Variable?

A

A name for a memory location
Temporarily holds a value that can change while the program is running

12
Q

What is Boolean?

A

A data type used to store one of two states, true or false

Or two states 0 and 1 or 0 and -1

Often translated to On/Off, Yes/No etc

13
Q

What is Casting?

A

Converting a variable from one data type to another

e.g.variable entered as a string needs to be an integer for calculation

14
Q

What is a Character?

A

A single alphanumeric

Includes letters a-z and A-Z, symbols e.g. #, @, ! & numbers 0-9.

15
Q

What is a Data Type?

A

A definition of the characteristics of a data item

Better described w/ an example such as integer, real, character, Boolean

16
Q

What is an Integer?

A

A data type used to store positive and negative `whole numbers`

17
Q

What is a Real?

A

A data type used to store numbers with a fractional part

(decimals)

18
Q

What is a String?

A

A sequence of characters often stored as a variable in a computer program
Can include numbers, letters and symbols

19
Q

What is a Constant?

A

A value that cannot change while a program is running

20
Q

What is a Function?

A

A section of code that may take parameters that can be called by another part of the program with the purpose of returning a value

can create self-contained reusable program components that can eliminate code duplication

21
Q

What is a List?

A

A set of data items of the same type grouped together using a single identifier
A dynamic data structure

22
Q

What is a Procedure?

A

A routine within a larger program that can take parameters
Used to produce structured code
Does not return a value

makes it easier to read and debug programs

23
Q

What is SQL?

A

Structured Query Language
A language to return, define and manipulate records in a database

Includes commands: SELECT, FROM, WHERE etc.

24
Q

What is the SQL command “FROM”?

A

SQL command to signify which table(s) to return data from

25
Q

What is the SQL command “SELECT”?

A

SQL command to signify which fields to return

26
Q

What is the SQL command “WHERE”?

A

SQL command to filter the results of a query

27
Q

What is String Manipulation?

A

Commands that extract or change characters in strings

e.g. LENGTH, LEFT, RIGHT, SUBSTRING, UPPER, LOWER, ASC, CHAR etc.

28
Q

What is a Subroutine?

A

A block of reusable code given a unique identifiable name within a program
Supports code reuse and program maintenance

Also called a subprogram, includes functions and procedures

29
Q

What is a zero-indexed array?

A

The first element is stored at index 0
Array is an area of memory, used to store variables of the same type