221 Meningitis Flashcards Preview

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Flashcards in 221 Meningitis Deck (40):
1

Which organism is the main cause for bacterial meningitis in toddlers?

S pneumoniae

2

Which organism is the main cause for bacterial meningitis in children under 10years?

S pneumoniae

3

Which organism is the main cause for bacterial meningitis in teenagers? ( >10 and

N meningitidis

4

Name 4 risk factors for meningitis (6 listed)

Age ( >60 ,

5

Which organism is the main cause for bacterial meningitis in babies under 3 months?

Group B strep

6

Which organism is the main cause for bacterial meningitis in children >3 months,

S pneumoniae

7

Which organism is the main cause for bacterial meningitis in children?

S pneumoniae

8

Which organism is the main cause for bacterial meningitis in adults?

N meningitidis

9

Which sign is characterised by pain when extending leg at knee when hip and knee flexed?

Kernig

10

Which sign is characterised by flexion of the knees to compensate for pain when head is flexed in supine position?

Brudzinski

11

Name 3 signs of raised ICP

Bulging fontanelle
Palsy of CN 3,4,6
Papilloedema

12

Which time period do seizures most commonly occur following onset of meningitis?

In first 48 hours

13

What is the immediate treatment for meningitis?

IM penicillin

14

What is the treatment of bacterial meningitis in neonates?

Ampicillin and aminoglycoside/cefotaxime

15

What is the treatment of bacterial meningitis in children

Ampicillin + cephalosporin

16

What is the treatment of bacterial meningitis in adults?

Cephalosporin (cefotaxime/ceftriaxone)

17

Name 3 reasons for performing CT prior to LP
(7 listed)

?raised ICP
> 60 years
Immunosuppression
Known CNS lesions
Seizure

18

Name 3 contraindications of LP

Infected skin over area
Raised ICP
CT findings of unequal pressure between supra/infra-tentorial compartments

19

Which type of meningitis would you suspect from the following CSF profile?:

- turbid +
- lymphocytes +
- normal protein
- normal glucose

Viral

20

Which type of meningitis would you suspect from the following CSF profile?:

- turbid +++
- neutrophils +++
- protein +++
- reduced glucose

Bacterial

21

Which type of meningitis would you suspect from the following CSF profile?:

- clear
- normal lymphocyte
- normal protein
- reduced glu
(Stains with Indian ink)

Fungal

22

Which type of meningitis would you suspect from the following CSF profile?:

- turbid +
- lymphocyte ++
- protein ++
- reduced glu

Mycobacterium

23

Which is the route of infection across BBB has:
- tight junctions therefor decreased para cellular flux
- slow rate of endocytosis due therefor decreased transcellular flux

& what type of infection ensues?

BMEC (brain microvascular endothelial cells) in brain parenchyma causing abscesses/encephalitis

24

Which is the route of infection across BBB has:
- weaker tight junctions therefor increased para cellular flux
- fast rate of endocytosis due therefor increased transcellular flux

& what type of infection ensues?

BMEC (brain microvascular endothelial cells) in choroid plexus causing meningitis

25

Which type of meningitis do PCV13 and PPV vaccinate against? Who are they for (specifically)?

Strep pneumonia
(PCV13: 65yrs)

26

Which gram negative diplococcus capsular end bacteria causes meningitis?

Neisseria meningitidis (pneumococcal meningitis)

27

Which gram +ve capsulated causes meningitis?

Strep pneumoniae

28

Which gram -ve coccobacillus causes bacterial meningitis?

Haemophilus influenzae

29

Which bacterial meningitis can affect people of any age? Why?

Strep pneumoniae - >23 different serotypes so not ABs against all

30

Which Hib type causes meningitis in young children?

Haemophilus influenzae type B

31

What is Cryptococcus neoformans and which type of meningitis does it cause?

Fungus which causes fungal meningitis

32

Which virus most commonly causes encephalitis?

HSV

33

What is the most common cause of a HSV encephalitis?

HSV reactivation of trigeminal neuralgia

34

Which virus causes epidemic viral encephalitis?

Arbovirus

35

In which trimester of pregnancy is intrauterine infection of CMV encephalitis most dangerous?

2nd - necrotising encephalitis here leading to calcification/microcephaly/deafness

36

What are the outcomes of a intrauterine encephalitis caused by rubella?

Heart defects, cataracts, mental retardation, deafness

37

What are the outcomes of an encephalitis caused by toxoplasmosis in:
1. 1st trimester
2. 2nd trimester
3. 3rd trimester

1. Abortion/stillbirth
2. Severe brain/organ damage
3. Moderate cerebral damage

38

What is the potential cause for acute disseminated encephalomyelitis?

Autoimmune reaction to proteins of myelin sheath caused by a virus

39

Which neuronal proteins are most commonly involved in autoimmune encephalitis?

Anti-NMDA receptor
Anti-VGKC receptor

40

What is the treatment for autoimmune encephalitis?

IV Ig's and steroids