Flashcards in 2.3 Carbohydrates and Lipids Deck (27):
What is the function and structure of monosaccharides?
Used for immediate energy.
contains carbon, hydrogen and oxygen. with ratio 1:2:1
example glucose C6H12O6, ribose C5H10O6
What is the function and structure of disaccharides?
They transport energy and are created by condensation reactions.
Pairs of monosaccharides linked together
They are sugars recognised for double ring structure.
Examples of monosaccharides?
Glucose, galactose, fructose
examples o disaccharides?
Maltose, lactose, sucrose.
How do you get maltose?
Glucose + glucose
How do you get lactose?
Glucose + galactose
How do you get sucrose?
Glucose + fructose.
What is the function and structure of polysaccharides?
Store energy and give structural support.
Long lines of multiple monosaccharides.
Examples of polysaccharides?
Cellulose, glycogen, starch
What is cellulose made from?
Beta - D glucose and it is the basis for a plant cell wall.
What is glycogen made from?
Alpha D glucose, used by mammals to store glucose in liber ad muscle cells. can be stored because it isn't soluble in water and therefore can remain longer.
What is starch made from?
Alpha D glucose and there are two forms
What are the two forms of starch?
Amylose and Amylopectin
What is an isomer?
It is when an element or molecule has the same chemical formula but different structural formula.
What is capsaicin?
The substance in peppers that make them spicy.
How do you get two different types of glucose?
It depends on the 1st hydrogen.
What does mitochondria use glucose for?
To make ATP.
2-deoxyribose and ribose are found where?
2- deoxyribose is in DNA where ribose is found in RNA.
What are lipids?
They are carbon compounds that are hydrophobic.
What are the three different types of lipids?
Triglycerides - 3 fatty acid tails + 1 glycerol
phospholipid - 2 fatty acid tails, 1 glycerol
steroids - cholesterol, progesterone, estrogen, testosterone
What are the two parts to a lipid?
Carboxyl group - COOH
unbranched hydrocarbon - CH2, (CH20)n - CH3
What are the two types of fatty acid?
saturated - carbons are connected by a single bond
unsaturated - one or more double bond between carbon atoms. These are naturally occurring and can be good for you.
The different types of unsaturated fatty acids?
Monounsaturated - one double bond
polyunsaturated - two or more double bonds
Difference between Cis and trans unsaturated?
Cis when hydrogen bonded to carbon on same side as double bond
trans is when hydrogen bonded to carbon on opposite side to the double bond.
What can lipids be used for?
For long term energy use, energy per gram is double the amount per gram for carbohydrate.
What is BMI?
Your mass in kg over your height in meters squared