Flashcards in Cell Respiration and Photosynthesis Deck (57):
4 stages of cellular respiration?
electron transport, oxidation and phosphorylation
Where does cellular respiration take place?
Cytoplasm and mitochondria
What is glycolysis?
it is the splitting of glucose into 2 3 carbon compounds.
it has two phases. phase 1 is for energy investment and phase 2 is for energy payoff.
2 ATP go into phase 1 and 4 come out of phase 2.
Takes place in cytoplasm
Does not require oxygen
What is the Link reaction?
It is there to produce acetyl COA (coenzyme)
Goes from pyruvate acid (3 carbon) -- Acetyl COA ( 2 carbon) --- OAA (4 carbon)
What is the Kreb cycle and its outcomes?
Takes place in the matrix
Positive outcomes - 8 NADH, 2 FADH2, 2 GTP
Negative outcomes - 6 CO2
What is FAD reduced to?
What does every NAD+ produce?
3 ATP for every FADH
Where does electron transport take place?
The inter membrane compartment
Where does oxygen come from?
Eat other organisms - animals
Get energy from sunlight - plants
What is the welwitschia?
Mr. stewart favourite plant. Only found in Nambia. Has 2 plants entire life and 15-20 meter long roots. Doesn't produce flower but produces seeds.
Two different types of glycolysis?
Aerobic - cell respiration
What causes the movement of hydrogen ions to the inter membrane compartment during cel respiration?
What two things are produced outside the mitochondria?
Pyruvate and lactic acid
What are products of Aerobic respiration?
ATP and pyruvate
How many ATP does each glucose molecule produce from glycolysis and cell respiration?
Where does the Kreb cycle take place?
In the matrix of the mitochondria
What is the starting substrate for the Kreb cycle?
What is the main product of the break down of glucose by yeast?
What delivers hydrogen ions and electrons to cristae?
What is the major waste product of the Kreb cycle?
What makes pyruvate break down into acetyl COA and then react with OAA to begin Kreb cycle?
Where do we get the source of oxygen to make water at the end of electron transport?
Ventilation, the air we breath
What is the point of phosphorylating a substrate?
So that the shape changes and an active side is ready.
What is Chemiosmosis?
It is the production of H2O in the electron transport chain.
What is needed for electron transport to take place?
For each glucose in glycolysis how many ATP are produced and how many are used up?
2 used up
Discuss the production of ATP during cell respiration?
ATP s a high energy nucleotide which acts as a source for instant energy. Cellular respiration is a set of metabolic reactions which convert biochemical energy to ATP and release waste products. ATP is then used as a source of energy. One glucose will 38 ATP. There are 2 ATP at the beginning of Phaase 1 in glycolysis and then 4 come out at the end of phase two in glycolysis. The other 34 are produced in the electron transport chain.
Explain the following terms relative to glycolysis: phospohorilation, lysis, oxidation and reduction.
Glycolysis is a metabolic pathway that takes place in the cytoplasm of a cell. Phosphorylation of glucose is required to increase reactivity in order for the molecule to be split into two pyruvate molecules. Lysis means splitting so glycolysis mean "sugar splitting". Lysis comes after phosphorylation.
What molecule is the hydrogen acceptor of glycolysis?
What is ATP a result from>
The phosphorylation of ADP
What is the hydrogen acceptor found at the end of the Kreb cycle?
how many ATP produced at the end on electron transport?
What reacts with what to start the Kreb cycle?
OAA reacts with COA
What is the original source of the hydrogen ions accepted by ADP+?
What does the pyruvate pass in order to enter Kreb cycle?
Cristi and outer membrane of mitochondria.
What other than electrons are used in electron transport?
What is Photosynthesis?
The conversion of light energy into chemical energy.
What is the light spectrum from longest waves to shortest waves?
Visible light spectrum?
red - violet
Why are leaves green?
Because the chlorophyll inside the chloroplast absorbs all colours expect green which it repells.
What is the overview process of photosynthesis?
Electron transports chain
What happens in Light dependent reactions?
- A photon of light strikes the chlorophyll molecule.
- Two electrons are excited to a higher energy level
- The two don't of back down to original but are grabbed by thlakiod membrane.
- To replace electrons lost H2O is split and the hydrogen is sued in electron transport chain.
Main results from Light dependent reactions?
O2 is released
H+ is fixed
e- replace those excited from chlorophyll
ATP is produced
Three stage of the light independent reactions? Calvin cycle
Regeneration of CO2 acceptor.
Explain the calvin cycle?
CO2 Fixates onto RuBP catalysed by rubisco to make a 6 carbon compound.
It then splits into two PGA (3 carbon compound).
Those two PGA's then phosphorylate by ATP which came from the electron transport chain in the light dependent reaction to form another compound.
This compound is the reduced by NADH which came from the end of photosystem 1 in the light dependent reaction to produce G3P.
What is RuBP?
a 5 carbon compound
What is phosphorylation?
To make a substrate fit into the next set of enzymes.
How many molecules of G3P does it take to produce 1 molecule of glucose>
12 molecules of G3P
How many turns of the calvin cycle to produce 1 molecule of glucose?
6 turns of the cycle.
What are the main results from the light independent reactions?
Carbon dioxide fixed
ATP and H+ from light dependent reaction used
Organic compounds produced - glucose.
What is the stoma?
The opening at the bottom of a dicot leaf that lets in CO@ and lets of oxygen.
How to directly measure the photosynthetic rate?
Indirect measurement of photosynthetic rate?
What is biomass?
The wet mass over the dry mass