2.6.18 Fluids Patho Flashcards Preview

398 Patho/Pharm > 2.6.18 Fluids Patho > Flashcards

Flashcards in 2.6.18 Fluids Patho Deck (16):
1

Edema/Hypervolemia

the excessive accumulation of fluid within the interstitial space
increased cap hydro press
decreased plas onco press
increased cap membrane permeablity
lymphatic channel obstruction (inflammation)

2

Dehydration/Hypovolemia

too small of volume of fluid in the extracellular compartment (vascular and interstitial); body fluids are too concentrated
look for:
poor turgor, tachycard, dry mucous membranes, decreased weight,
peds: no tears, thirsty, dark urine, depressed fontanels

give fluids SLOWLY

3

Sodium

135-145 mEq/L
Major EXTRAcellular cation
maintains tonicity of EF; regulates A-B; nerve conduction and neuro-muscular fxn; maintains water balance

4

Hyponatremia

serum levels below 135 mEq/L; too much EF to Na
AE: malaise, N/V, headache, seizures, coma, death
from GOW or LOS (renal disease; replace water w/out salt)

5

Hyperatremia

serum above 145 mEq/L: too little water to Na
GOS (tube feeding, salt tabs, no water) or LOW (emesis, diarrhea, diaphoresis)
CM: thirsty, hypotension, tachycardia, oliguria, lethargy, seizures, coma, death
Treat: cause; PO or IV 5%DW slowly

6

Potassium

3.5-5 mEq/L
major INTRAcellular fluid cation
maintains cell electrical neutrality; facilitates cardiac muscle contraction and electrical conductivity; neuromuscular transmission of nerve impulses
maintains A-B

7

Hypokalemia

decreased potassium ion concentration in the EF
CF: decreased intake: NPO, fasting, diet; alkalosis (shifts into cell), increase K excretion or loss
CM: muscle weakness/paralysis, cardiac dysrhythmeia
replace PO IV be careful of hyperkalemia

8

Hyperkalemia

elevation of K in EF
CF: increased intake (blood transfusions); shifts to EF (acidosis, crushing injuries), decreased excretion
CM: cramping, diarrhea, weakness/paralysis, dysrhythmeias
treatment: fix cause, pharm, dialysis

9

Calcium

9-11 mg/dl
vital for cell permeability, bone and teeth formation, blood coagulation, nerve impulse transmission, and normal muscle contraction
plays important role in cardiac action potential and essential for pacemaker

10

Hypocalcemia

CF: decreased intake (diet), decrease in physiologic availability (alkalosis), increased excretion (pancreatitis)
CM: increased neuromuscular excitability, twitching, seizures, dysrhythmias

11

Hypercalcemia

CF: increased vita D, shift from bone to ECF (tumor), decreased excretion
CM: decreased nm excitability, weakness/decreased reflexes, CNS fatigue, headache, lethargy; dysrhythmias, kidney stones
treat: cause, pharm

12

Acid-base homeostasis 3 parts

buffers, respiratory system, renal system
pH: 7.35-7.45
Paco2: 36-44 mmHg
Hco3-: 22-26 mEq/L

13

Respiratory Acidosis

any condition that causes excess of carbonic acid
Causes:
impaired gas exchange: asthma, COPD, pneumonia
inadequate NM fxn: pain, gilian
impairment of respiratory control in the brainstem: respiratory depression

CM: headache, tachycard, dysrhythmia
ABG: increased CO2, decreased pH

14

Respiratory Alkalosis

any condition that causes a carbonic acid deficit
causes: hyperventilation: panic attack/anxiety, crying, acute pain, hypoxemia, brainstem injury

CM: excited/confused, tingling, feet and hand spasms
ABG: decreased PaCO2, increased pH

15

Metabolic acidosis

relative excess of any acid except carbonic acid
causes: increased in metabolic acid: ketoacidosis, burns, circ shock
decreased
decreased in base/bicarb: diarrhea

CM: fruity, acetone breath, N/V, dehydration, diarrhea, CNS: depression, HA, confusion, lethargy, coma. Tachycard, dysrhythmias.
ABG: decrease HCO3 and pH

16

Metabolic alkalosis

any condition that causes a relative deficit of any acid (except carbonic acid)

causes: increase in base (overuse of antiacids, hypovolemic)
decrease in acid: emesis, remove gastric sec
combo

CM: hypotension, N/V, diarrhea, CNS: tingling, tetany, seizures, hypokalemia with bilateral muscle weakness.
ABG: increase HCO3 and pH