28 - Hypertension and Case Study Flashcards Preview

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What is primary or essential hypertension?

When a patient with hypertension has NO identifiable cause for the hypertension

This means that although there are things in the patient's health record that you think are contributing to their hypertension, they don't have a single pathology that is giving them hypertension that if you treat that pathology, with completely get rid of their hypertension.


What are the risk factors for primary hypertension?

- Age
- Race
- Familial pattern
- Obesity
- Alcohol intake
- Sedentary lifestyle
- Salt intake
- Psychogenic stress
- Personality traits
- Hypovitaminosis D


What are secondary causes of hypertension?

- Identifiable disorders where the pathogenesis of hypertension is related to the underlying condition


What are some signs that the hypertension is due to a secondary cause?

- Patient is not responding to medical treatment with 3 or more HTN meds
- Accelerated phase of HTN
- Very young or old
- Abrupt onset
- Abdominal bruit
- Low potassium


List the top 7 disorders that are SECONDARY causes of hypertension


1 - Primary renal disease
2 - Meds (0ral contraceptives, NSAIDs, antidepressants)
3 - Pheochromocytoma
4 - Hyperaldosteronism
5 - Endocrine (thyroid problems)
6 - Sleep apnea***
7 - Coarctation of the aorta


Describe sleep apnea as a cause of hypertension

Sleep apnea is a treatable cause of hypertension


What types of patients should you think of sleep apnea for a cause for their hypertension?

- Obesity
- Snoring patients
- Patients that wake up with a head ache
- Patients who fall asleep inappropriately during the day


What are the complications of hypertension?


- Cardiovascular disease
- Heart failure
- Stroke
- Intracerebral hemorrhage
- Chronic kidney disease


Is hypertension the only factor which increases the risk for coronary artery disease?


Hypertension is one of several factors that increase coronary disease ***

Hypertension is a common one, but not the most powerful