Flashcards in 28 - Hypertension and Case Study Deck (9)
What is primary or essential hypertension?
When a patient with hypertension has NO identifiable cause for the hypertension
This means that although there are things in the patient's health record that you think are contributing to their hypertension, they don't have a single pathology that is giving them hypertension that if you treat that pathology, with completely get rid of their hypertension.
What are the risk factors for primary hypertension?
- Familial pattern
- Alcohol intake
- Sedentary lifestyle
- Salt intake
- Psychogenic stress
- Personality traits
- Hypovitaminosis D
What are secondary causes of hypertension?
- Identifiable disorders where the pathogenesis of hypertension is related to the underlying condition
What are some signs that the hypertension is due to a secondary cause?
- Patient is not responding to medical treatment with 3 or more HTN meds
- Accelerated phase of HTN
- Very young or old
- Abrupt onset
- Abdominal bruit
- Low potassium
List the top 7 disorders that are SECONDARY causes of hypertension
1 - Primary renal disease
2 - Meds (0ral contraceptives, NSAIDs, antidepressants)
3 - Pheochromocytoma
4 - Hyperaldosteronism
5 - Endocrine (thyroid problems)
6 - Sleep apnea***
7 - Coarctation of the aorta
Describe sleep apnea as a cause of hypertension
Sleep apnea is a treatable cause of hypertension
What types of patients should you think of sleep apnea for a cause for their hypertension?
- Snoring patients
- Patients that wake up with a head ache
- Patients who fall asleep inappropriately during the day
What are the complications of hypertension?
- Cardiovascular disease
- Heart failure
- Intracerebral hemorrhage
- Chronic kidney disease