2A - Cell Structure Flashcards Preview

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Flashcards in 2A - Cell Structure Deck (31):
1

What is a prokaryotic organism

A single celled organism

2

What is a Eukaryote

A multicellular organism with membrane bound organelles

3

What organelles do a plant cell contain that an animal cell doesn't contain?

Cellulose cell wall A vacuole Chloroplasts

4

Are algae multicellular or unicellular?

Both. They can be unicellular(e.g. cholera) or multicellular (e.g. seaweed)

5

What makes fungi cells diffrent to plant cells?

Cells walls made of chitin not cellulose

No chloroplasts

6

How are cloroplasts differnt in plant and algal cells

Algal cells sometimes have one large chloroplast not many smaller ones

7

What is this organelle and what is its function

Mitochonrion

Site of aerobic respiration where ADP becomes ATP

8

What is this organelle and what is its function?

Chloroplast

Site of photosynthesis

9

What is this organelle and what is its function?

Golgi Apparatus

Process and packages new lipids and proteins for secretion. Also makes lysosomes.

10

What is this organelle and what is its function?

Lysosome

Contains digestive enzymes called lysozymes which are used to digest invading cells and break down parts of the cell

11

What is this organelle and what is its function?

Rough Endoplasmic Reticulum (RER)

Fold and processes proteins made at the ribosomes on its surface

12

What is the function of the ribosomes

To synthesis proteins

13

What organelle is covered with ribosomes

Rough Endoplasmic Reticulum (RER)

14

What is this organelle and what is its function?

Smooth Endoplasmic Reticulum (SER)

Synthesises and processes lipids

15

What does the cell wall do?

Supports the cell and prevents it from changing shape

16

What does the cell vacuole do? (PLANTS ONLY)

Helps to maintain pressuer insdide of the cell and keeps the cell rigid.

17

What is a tissue

A group of the same specalised cells working together to perfom a specific function

18

What is an organ?

Different tissues working together

19

What is an organ system?

Diffrerent organs working together to perform a function

20

What are plasmids

Small loop of DNA in prokaryotic cells outside of the main chromosome

21

What types of cells contain flagellum and what is its function?

Prokaryotic cells

Movement/propulsion

22

What is a capsule on a bacterial cell

A layer of slime that proects the cell from attacks by the imune system

23

Where is DNA found in a prokaryotic cell

Free floating as a single looped chromosome in the cytoplasm

24

Explain the stages of binary fission

1. Circular DNA and plasmids replicate

2.Cell grows and loops of DNA move to opposite poles

3.Cytoplasm begins to divide

4.Cytoplasm fully divides and 2 daugher cells are produced each identical to the original

25

Viruses are....

Acellular(they're not cells)

26

What is the name of the cell which a virus invades to reproduce in?

Host cell

27

Describe the structure of a virus.

A core of genetic material covered in a protein coat called a capsid with attachment proteins

28

29

Describe the process of viral replication

1.Virus attaches to the cell via attachment proteins and DNA or RNA is injected into the host cell

2.Virus uses the host cell's mqachienery to reproduce

3. Eventually the cell becomes too full and bursts releasing the viruses

30

Equation for magnification

magnification = size of image / size of real object

31

What is resolution?

How detailed an image is. How well a microscope is able to distinguish between two points that are close together