4A - DNA,RNA and Protein Synthesis Flashcards Preview

Year 1 Biology > 4A - DNA,RNA and Protein Synthesis > Flashcards

Flashcards in 4A - DNA,RNA and Protein Synthesis Deck (44):
1

Anticodon

The matching triplet of bases to a codon of RNA e.g. GGC and CCG

2

3

DNA Structure

4

Proteome

The complete range of a proteins a cell can produce

5

Translation

The second stage of protein synthesis in which amino acids are joined together by ribosomes to form a polypeptide

6

RNA polymerase

The enzyme that lines up all the nucleotides and joins them together

7

Universal

Found in all living organisms

8

tRNA

RNA used in translation. Carries the amino acids used to make proteins to the ribosomes

9

Polypeptide

A molecule that if formed from more than one amino acid

10

Triplet

A series of three bases which codes for one amino acid in a protein

11

Transcription

The first stage of protein synthesis in which an mRNA copy of a gene is made from DNA

12

mRNA

Type of RNA that carries the genetic code from the DNA to the ribosomes

13

Homologous Chromosomes

A pair of matching chromosomes - each one contains the same genes

14

Gene

A section of DNA which codes for a protein

15

Genome

The complete set of genes in a cell

16

Codon

A triplet of bases in DNA

17

Allele

Different forms of the same gene

18

Splicing

The removal of introns from pre mRNA and then joining up the exons to form mRNA

19

Hydrogen bond

A type of bond formed between DNA bases

20

Nucleotide

A monomer made up of pentose sugar, phosphate group and a nitrogenous organic base

21

Locus

The position on a chromosome where a particular allele is found

22

Base

A nitrogen containing molecule that forms part of a DNA molecule

23

Cytoplasm

A gel-like substance where most of the chemical reactions in the cell take place

24

Chromosomes

A thread like structure made up of one long DNA molecule

25

RNA

Type of nucleic acid that contains ribose instead of deoxyribose and uracil instead of thymine

26

DNA(Deoxyribonucleic acid)

The molecule in all cells that stores genetic information

27

Functional RNA

RNA molecules that aren't mRNA

28

Intron

A section of DNA within a gene that DOESN'T code for amino acids

29

Ribosome

A small organelle that makes proteins

30

Exon

A section of DNA within a gene that DOES codes for amino acids

31

Differences between DNA in Eukaryotic and Prokaryoric cells.

Eukaryotes:

  • DNA is wrapped around histone proteins
  • Linear Chromosomes
  • Mitochondria and chloroplasts have their own DNA

Prokaryotes:

  • No DNA in a nucleus
  • DNA is found is single looped chromosome
  • Smaller DNA molecules

32

Where does transcription take place?

Nucleus

33

Where does translation take place?

Ribosomes

34

Primary Structure of a protein

The sequence of amino acids in a polypeptide chain

35

Secondary structure in protein

Hydrogen bonds pull the chain into regular patterns.

36

Types of secondary structure

  1. alpha - spirals/helix
  2. beta - pleated sheets

37

Tertiary structure in proteins

Proteins are folded even more than the secondary structure by hydrogen, ionic and disulfide bonds.

38

Quaternary structure of proteins

Proteins that are made up of many polypeptide chains with teritary structures.

39

40

41

42

43

44