The matching triplet of bases to a codon of RNA e.g. GGC and CCG
The complete range of a proteins a cell can produce
The second stage of protein synthesis in which amino acids are joined together by ribosomes to form a polypeptide
The enzyme that lines up all the nucleotides and joins them together
Found in all living organisms
RNA used in translation. Carries the amino acids used to make proteins to the ribosomes
A molecule that if formed from more than one amino acid
A series of three bases which codes for one amino acid in a protein
The first stage of protein synthesis in which an mRNA copy of a gene is made from DNA
Type of RNA that carries the genetic code from the DNA to the ribosomes
A pair of matching chromosomes - each one contains the same genes
A section of DNA which codes for a protein
The complete set of genes in a cell
A triplet of bases in DNA
Different forms of the same gene
The removal of introns from pre mRNA and then joining up the exons to form mRNA
A type of bond formed between DNA bases
A monomer made up of pentose sugar, phosphate group and a nitrogenous organic base
The position on a chromosome where a particular allele is found
A nitrogen containing molecule that forms part of a DNA molecule
A gel-like substance where most of the chemical reactions in the cell take place
A thread like structure made up of one long DNA molecule
Type of nucleic acid that contains ribose instead of deoxyribose and uracil instead of thymine
The molecule in all cells that stores genetic information
RNA molecules that aren't mRNA
A section of DNA within a gene that DOESN'T code for amino acids
A small organelle that makes proteins
A section of DNA within a gene that DOES codes for amino acids
Differences between DNA in Eukaryotic and Prokaryoric cells.
- DNA is wrapped around histone proteins
- Linear Chromosomes
- Mitochondria and chloroplasts have their own DNA
- No DNA in a nucleus
- DNA is found is single looped chromosome
- Smaller DNA molecules
Where does transcription take place?
Where does translation take place?
Primary Structure of a protein
The sequence of amino acids in a polypeptide chain
Secondary structure in protein
Hydrogen bonds pull the chain into regular patterns.
Types of secondary structure
- alpha - spirals/helix
- beta - pleated sheets
Tertiary structure in proteins
Proteins are folded even more than the secondary structure by hydrogen, ionic and disulfide bonds.
Quaternary structure of proteins
Proteins that are made up of many polypeptide chains with teritary structures.