Flashcards in 2B.3 Deck (26)
What does lithology mean?
refers to the physical characteristic of the rock.
What does lithology effect on what scale?
on a medium or meso scale
What is igneous rock?
The most resistant rock eg Granite
It is made up of interlocked crystals in a crystalline structure that are well connected impermeable and have few weaknesses
What do igneous rocks cause?
Eg Lands End in Cornwall
What is metamorphic rock?
Well connected rocks that are impermeable but folded so create faults and joints as a weakness.
Eg marble, slate, schist
What do metamorphic rocks cause?
erode slowly (0.5-1cm/year)
Eg St Ives in Cornwall, slate
What is sedimentary rock?
Layers of dead organisms compressed over millions of years in strata. eg Limestone and chalk.
What does sedimentary rock cause?
Steep cliffs and headlands and wave-cut platforms
They are vulnerable: clastic, in strata, porous and permeable (limestone 1-2cm/year) (chalk 1-100cm/year)
What are unconsolidated rock?
layers of permeable rock where water can remove the cement between particles from water pressure reducing stability
What do unconsolidated rock cause?
Rock falls and through falls,slumping, mudslides
eg Sandstone 10-100cm/year
Eg boulder clay on Holderness coast (NE) where 100-1000cm year
What can tectonic processes cause in rocks?
changing dip eg Lulworth cove
What are the type of cliff faces that cause recession?
towards the sea
away from the sea (landward)
What is differential erosion?
erosion that happens at varying rates due to geological structure of the rock
How can recession rates be determined?
examining historic maps and images over recent ones.
How has marram grass stabilised coastlines?
long roots - moisture
roots capture sand
example of xerophyte - lives in arid conditions
Waxy leaves prevent evaporation
What is pioneer species?
species that are the first to live in an area eg Marram Grass and Glasswort
What is glasswort?
Halophyte - adapted in a saline condition
What is succession?
the changing of structure of a plant community over time as an initially bare surface is colonised by pioneer species then develops
What is psammosere?
succession on a sand dune
What is halosere?
succession on a salt marsh
What is included in psammosere?
Dune slack, climax community zone (mature dunes), embryo dunes, fore dune, yellow dune,water table, grey dune
What is included in halosere?
low energy = more deposition, flocculation, tidal conditions, vegetation stabilises,
What is included in the climate climax community?
natural vegetation in areas
What is plagio climax community?
humans maintaining an area to making it suitable which interferes with natural succession.
What is flocculation?
when sea water and river water mix and increased deposition as it creates a low energy deposition.