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Flashcards in 2B.3 Deck (26)
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1

What does lithology mean?

refers to the physical characteristic of the rock.

2

What does lithology effect on what scale?

on a medium or meso scale

3

What is igneous rock?

The most resistant rock eg Granite
It is made up of interlocked crystals in a crystalline structure that are well connected impermeable and have few weaknesses

4

What do igneous rocks cause?

steep cliffs
0.1-0.3cm/year
Eg Lands End in Cornwall

5

What is metamorphic rock?

Well connected rocks that are impermeable but folded so create faults and joints as a weakness.
Eg marble, slate, schist

6

What do metamorphic rocks cause?

rocky coastline
steep profiles
erode slowly (0.5-1cm/year)
Eg St Ives in Cornwall, slate

7

What is sedimentary rock?

Layers of dead organisms compressed over millions of years in strata. eg Limestone and chalk.

8

What does sedimentary rock cause?

Steep cliffs and headlands and wave-cut platforms
They are vulnerable: clastic, in strata, porous and permeable (limestone 1-2cm/year) (chalk 1-100cm/year)

9

What are unconsolidated rock?

layers of permeable rock where water can remove the cement between particles from water pressure reducing stability

10

What do unconsolidated rock cause?

Rock falls and through falls,slumping, mudslides
eg Sandstone 10-100cm/year
Eg boulder clay on Holderness coast (NE) where 100-1000cm year

11

What can tectonic processes cause in rocks?

changing dip eg Lulworth cove

12

What are the type of cliff faces that cause recession?

Steep dips
Horizontal strata
towards the sea
away from the sea (landward)

13

What is differential erosion?

erosion that happens at varying rates due to geological structure of the rock

14

How can recession rates be determined?

examining historic maps and images over recent ones.

15

How has marram grass stabilised coastlines?

long roots - moisture
roots capture sand
example of xerophyte - lives in arid conditions
Waxy leaves prevent evaporation

16

What is pioneer species?

species that are the first to live in an area eg Marram Grass and Glasswort

17

What is glasswort?

Halophyte - adapted in a saline condition

18

What is succession?

the changing of structure of a plant community over time as an initially bare surface is colonised by pioneer species then develops

19

What is psammosere?

succession on a sand dune

20

What is halosere?

succession on a salt marsh

21

What is included in psammosere?

Dune slack, climax community zone (mature dunes), embryo dunes, fore dune, yellow dune,water table, grey dune

22

What is included in halosere?

low energy = more deposition, flocculation, tidal conditions, vegetation stabilises,

23

What is included in the climate climax community?

natural vegetation in areas

24

What is plagio climax community?

humans maintaining an area to making it suitable which interferes with natural succession.

25

What is flocculation?

when sea water and river water mix and increased deposition as it creates a low energy deposition.

26

What factors affect natural succession?

human factors on a meso scale eg SSSI, tourism
physical factors change course of deposition and succession.