Flashcards in 3 + 4 The Discriminative Stimulus and Reinforcer Deck (17)
What is stimulus control?
The differential reinforcement of the discriminative stimulus, which produces variations in response when a certain dimension or feature of the stimulus is manipulated.
What is the role of the discriminative stimulus and what are the two effects a discriminative stimulus can have on a behaviour?
The role of the discriminative stimulus is to strengthen the R-Rft connection, and therefore controls behaviour. The response can be reinforced by the stimulus (S+/Sd) or the response can be inhibited by the stimulus (S-/Sdelta).
Why is stimulus control important?
It tests what has actually been learned and how the behaviour has been generalised.For example - if change colour slightly, will behaviour occur and how much?For example - PECK vs PACK - difference in responses between pigeons (physically similar) and children (semantically different)
What is discrimination and how can it be observed?
The unjust or prejudicial treatment of different categories of people or things, esp. on the grounds of race, age, or sex. Also, the ability to distinguish between different stimuli, observed in discreteness in behaviour towards different stimuli.
What does the generalisation gradient look like, graphically?
A normal bell-shape curve - the peak represents S+. The likelihood or strength of response depends on the level of difference from S+.
What is transposition?
Changing keys in music. Also, transferring learned responses to similar situations.
What is transposition?
Tranferring learned responses to similar situations.
Under what circumstances might one generalise, i.e. fail to discriminate?
Sensory limitation (cannot discriminate)Lack of stimulus control (does not discriminate)
What is peak shift?
Peak Shift - when discriminating between S+ and S-, the peak of the S+ shifts away from the control S+ and in the opposite direction of S-. Therefore, greatest response does not occur at trained S+ but at stimuli further away from S-.
What is relational learning and how is it limited?
Relational learning is learning to distinguish between S+ and S- by a difference in relative properties. Spence's Gradient Summation Theory - Relational learning is limited because the generalisation gradients of S+ and S- overlap.
What is Thorndike's Law of Effect?
Response is controlled by its consequences. A response that leads to a good outcome increases the chances of that response. A response that leads to a bad outcome will decrease the change of that response.
Is motivation necessary for learning?
No, Tolman found that rats learned without reinforcement. However, reinforcement provides motivation to learn faster/better.
What is latent learning?
When evidence of learning is not evident or used immediately, but later, when required/motivated.
How does the drive theory fail in the study of smoker-flight attendants?
Flight attendants showed increased need to smoke, not because of biological need to smoke, but as a response to stimuli (time until landing). Therefore, stimuli can increase drive.
What is Hull's Drive Theory?
Behaviours are organised to satisfy or reduce a drive. Behaviour = learning x motivation. The reinforcement is drive reduction.
What is the Premack Principle?
Reinforcement is possible when a less-preferred behaviour will allow access to a more-preferred behaviour. For example, lever pressing is reinforced if food is contingent on it. Reinforcement depends on current preference. If preferences change, so do behaviours: A>B>C or C>B>A.